Jane Adams: Comparing the Differences between Non-Structured and Structured
Mandalas as a Tool for Reducing Anxiety in Elderly People with a
Diagnosis of Dementia
This research study examined the value of two potential art therapy tools for anxiety reduction. The population base studied was comprised of twelve individuals between the ages of 65 and 95 years who were in the early stages of dementia. Dementia patients suffer anxiety over the loss of language, cognition, and memory. The tools selected for study were non-structured and structured mandala forms, which have been shown to have a calming effect on individuals who make them. The focus was on understanding the levels of anxiety expressed in Pre and Post questionnaires completed. Data was collected before and after mandalas were completed by study participants. Results of data analysis illustrated changes in anxiety experienced by study participants and highlighted unexpected variables that indicated potential to influence expected results.
James Albertson: An Investigation of Art Therapy with Juvenile Offenders in
Tanzania, East Africa: A case study of one adolescent's Experience
This study explored the use of art therapy with juvenile offenders in Africa. A single case research design was employed to describe one individual’s experience as a participant in a pilot art therapy program at a juvenile facility in Tanzania. Data collected during the program were used to identify dominant themes regarding the subject’s experience. Results illustrated a consistent interest and participation in art therapy interventions, the ability to engage with the art materials to achieve formed expression, and the capacity for using the art making process to create and reframe his personal narrative. In addition, a thematic relationship between the analyses of the subject’s artwork, his verbal associations to the artwork, and past research was found.
Andrea Atherton: Walk in the Shadows: A Jungian Approach to Art Imagery
An analysis of a graduate art therapy student's personal art work from a Jungian perspective and theoretical base. Each art piece is archetypal meanings and the context of the images. Through art assessment, the student was able to discover underdeveloped and forgotten aspects of her personality, which under normal circumstances she would be unable to access. To show the efficacy of this process, dream work is included. These are interpreted indicating the power of artistic process in psychic growth. Growth of this nature is desirable in the everyday realm and is especially valuable in working as a therapist.
Jacob M. Atkinson: The Ability of Printmaking to Increase Psychological Well-Being in Art
This research study explored how printmaking techniques influenced psychological well-being when used as a modality for art therapy and how different client populations responded to the printmaking process. Three different populations participated in this study; stroke survivors, children with chronic illness, and adolescents who have experienced abusive trauma. Research consisted of three consecutive sessions, in which participants were given a different printmaking technique each session. The three printmaking processes used in this study were Styrofoam relief prints, no-glue collagraph, and reductive monotypes. Bradburn and Noll's Affect Balance Scale was administered as a pre and a post test to ascertain the overall change in the participant's psychological well-being; while the Technique Questionnaire was used to obtain immediate feedback from the participants. Overall, the participants from all three populations improved or maintained their level of psychological well-being and responded positively to all three printmaking techniques. This study concluded that printmaking shows promise in increasing psychological well-being, and should be utilized more frequently as a modality in art therapy.
Amelia Bailey: Music’s Influence on Creative Expression: Examining the relational significance of music’s presence in art therapy
Music profoundly affects varying aspects of everyday life, such as media, entertainment, education, religion and ancient tribal rituals. The purpose of this correlation study is creative expression and it was designed to explore the affect that music has on the level of creative expression in ten children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age. The study was carried out at Nazareth College of Rochester at the Patricia Carter Day Care Center where the children were given the opportunity to participate in four group sessions that combined art and music. The children's experiences in these groups were documented and analyzed in accordance with four measures concerning visually artistic creative expression, designed by the researcher. The analysis offered support to the hypothesis that listening to music has an effect on artistic expressiveness. This research offers insights into measuring creativity with and without the presence of music. Further examinations into the effects of music on people, along with the intricacies of art therapy techniques with young children and the sequential development of these children are also present.
Jaime Balduf: Will Anxious Participants Engage More Easily in Art Therapy if Provided
with an Action-Art Based Warm-Up Exercise?
This research study investigated the effectiveness of an action-art based warm-up technique to ease engagement of an anxious participant in an initial art therapy session. The population base studied comprised of twenty-two individuals between the ages of 18 and 65 years who volunteered to take part in this research. The participants were randomly assigned to either a control group with no intervention or an experimental group with a marble painting intervention. The tools selected for study included the Beck Anxiety Inventory and self-report questionnaires about personal feelings and experiences with art. The focus was on any change in anxiety that may have occurred over the course of each session and how willing participants were to engage. Data was collected before and after each experience. Results of data analysis indicated an overall reduction in anxiety for both groups, with a greater frequency for positive change in sessions where the action-art based warm-up was given.
Kathleen G. Baumann: My Father’s Quilt
The Purpose of this book is to present an art therapy technique to help a family cope with the death of one of its members. It describes the making of a quilt in which the surviving members participate. Through the process of making the quilt the surviving family members are able to attend to their feelings toward the death of the family member, and more importantly allow the surviving family members to grieve openly and re-establish a relationship. The quilt becomes a vehicle for a family ritual to aid the family in the transition from one life stage to another.
Christie Becker: Images from the Unconscious: Issue on countertransference
Discusses the countertransference reactions that one graduate art therapy student experienced with four different clients. Case examples and art work by the clients and the art therapy student are used to illustrate that countertransference reactions are inevitable and unavoidable. The importance of creating the observable image and the acknowledgment of countertransference issues can help therapists be more empathetic with their clients.
Brian T. Berlinski: Are There Differences in the Developmental Art of Deaf Children and
The developmental art of deaf children and hearing children between the ages of 7 and 9 years were compared. Deafness was defined as having a hearing loss of 70 decibels in at least one ear. Raters classified 24 drawings by deaf children and 29 drawings by hearing children according to a seven-item checklist based on Lowenfeld's stages of artistic development. The mean score of the drawings of hearing children was significantly higher than the mean score of the drawings of deaf children. The study supported Lowenfeld's idea of the schematic stage as normative for well-adjusted children aged 7 to 9 years. Results are discussed within the context of using culturally affirmative assessments to rate the drawings of deaf children.
Valerie L. Berner: Characters on the Trail: How Appalachian Trail thru-hikers express their experiences
This thesis is grounded in narrative technique, Gestalt theory, and existentialism. It studies the Appalachian Trail, its history, and the thru-hiking community. It aims to provide thru-hikers with an innovative way of expressing and sharing their Trail experiences and Trail stories. This study presents and discusses the writing and artwork of eight participants who have thru-hiked the Appalachian Trail. It explores several relationships between their writing and artwork, and addresses possibilities for future research. It also provides discussion regarding limitations and implications. As this study is largely exploratory in design, its intent is to generate interest in this topic and hypotheses that may inspire future studies. This investigation emphasizes giving voice to individuals and bringing meaning and passion to research.
Frances M. Borghere: An Art Therapist’s Examination of Wisdom in the Elderly
"An Art Therapist's Examination of Wisdom in the Elderly" considers the definitions of wisdom and the elderly and questions contemporary societal bias against the elderly and the impact of ascribing wisdom in old age. Wisdom is revealed by philosophical and historical views and recent psychological history. The contributions of Jung and Erikson on the subject of wisdom and its development are given. Contemporary psychosocial research into the development of wisdom in old age examines the components: cognition, adaptation, socially centered reasoning, affect, life satisfaction, and personality traits. The antecedents of wisdom, a tripartite model for describing wisdom's psychological competencies and the appropriateness of an expansion of Piaget's developmental theory to incorporate post-formal operations are also included.
Wisdom through creative expression is examined in art therapy, art, storytelling and symbolism. The implications and importance of facilitating the development of wisdom in old age is described. Suggestions such as storytelling and reminiscing in life-review, with their uses in art therapy, are given.
Jennifer Borst: Retention vs. Attrition: How can art therapy help?
This study measured sense of community, stress level, and self-esteem before and after four art therapy sessions with the intention of increasing retention. An average of 10 female and male freshmen college students volunteered for each group. The results showed that half of the measure for sense of community increased while the other half decreased, stress level decreased and self-esteem level also decreased.
Elizabeth Brandt: Art therapy with Broca’s Aphasics as Aid in Identity Re-construction
Using a case study format to investigate the benefits of the Person-Centered Approach to art therapy utilized within a Gestalt theoretical framework, this paper seeks to propose a non-directive approach to treatment when working with Broca's aphasics. Through consideration of the medical aspects of stroke-including common causes as well as responses to post-stroke rehabilitation and treatment-progress made by five female Broca's aphasics with prior experience with the arts is evaluated in accordance with a strength based perspective.
Matthew E. Broad: Fairy Tales: Implications in family dynamics and visual imagery
Fairy tales can be observed not only for their literary importance but also for their therapeutic value and significance as well. Although many may think that fairy tales and the messages within are for the young, they offer life lessons for adults also. Using Fairy tales in conjunction with art therapy invites individuals to connect to parts of themselves that may be difficult to identify otherwise.
When attempting to understand one’s family dynamics, fairy tales serve as projective instruments for individuals to “speak through.” When an individual is able to relate their feelings concerning his or her family by way of fairy tale-like characters, environments, and what may be too difficult for the client to verbalize may be communicated through the situations a “bridge” may be formed which he or she may be able to communicate their feelings. The visual imagery that fairy tales elicit can aid in client therapist communication. Artwork and then processed further within a therapeutic setting.
Fairy tales offer numerous contributions when coinciding with art therapy. The Fairy Tale Family Drawing Assessment asks the participant to “draw you and your family in a fairy tale-like setting.” It is my hope that this directive will influence clients’ insight into their psyche, while aiding them in achieving a comfort level that will aid them in verbalizing their personal struggles.
Katherine H. Burgoyne: The Differences in the Opinions and Perceptions of Art
Therapists Regarding Their Field in the United Kingdom and in the
This largely quantitative research study gathered and compared the opinions and perceptions of art therapists regarding their field in the United Kingdom (UK) and in the United States (US). Data was collected through a survey; questionnaires were hosted on a website which was made available to registered art therapists in both countries. It was hypothesized that there would be differences in the opinions and perceptions of art therapists in the UK and the US, and that these differences could be due to dissimilarities in the origins and schools of art therapy in each country and to the unique healthcare, educational and correctional systems in which art therapists operate. The results of this study indicate that there are indeed significant differences between the opinions and perceptions of art therapists in the UK and the US regarding all aspects of their field.
Devin Burns: Fabric Techniques for Art Therapy
While fabric is an obvious important part of human experience, it has had little formal introduction into the profession of art therapy. Fabric is often mentioned as part of general suggested material lists, but rarely referred to for use in techniques or directives. In an effort to begin addressing the lack of fabric use in art therapy, this thesis project created an instructional DVD and handbook on fabric techniques to be used in art therapy. The following paper offers a brief history of art therapy, a brief history of fabric, and the current use of fabric within the field of art therapy.
Day Butcher: Mural Making within a Juvenile Detention Hall in Tanzania, East Africa
The main focus of this thesis is to expound on the limited information available regarding the use of mental health treatment in Africa, specifically exploring the modality of art therapy as rehabilitation with juvenile detainees in Tanzania. The art therapy intervention, that of painting a mural at a detention hall, will be examined through descriptive analysis. Approximately 25 adolescents (3 females and 22 males), aged 8-18 years old, housed in the facility were given the opportunity to participate in the mural project. The mural was completed over a two-week pilot internship experience involving art therapy graduate students. The process of painting the mural engaged the youth in daily stimuli, built group cohesion, and led to environmental beautification.
Jessica Butler: Body, Mind, and Soul: An approach to yoga, creativity, and self-awareness through art therapy
For my thesis, I took a closer look at the combination of art therapy and yoga practices in the alleviation of stress symptoms through the enhancement of the body/mind connection. Individuals all over the country are experiencing physical symptoms due to their high levels of stress and I am no exception. I am intrigued by the meditative and movement focused qualities that yoga provides and the healing power that it has been documented to give. I am also drawn to the process of implementing bodywork in the art therapy process to support the concept of the body/mind connection. Finally, I would like to see how artwork and stress level may change over time with the addition of a yoga routine.
Research Questions: For an individual experiencing identified physical symptoms of stress and participating in a yoga/art routine, is there a relationship between the movement work and the creative process? Does the artwork created align with the physical symptoms being experienced at the time? Is change observable in the artwork or in body sensations after a designated routine of yoga and art? I propose a heuristic study that will outline the artistic response completed after each hatha yoga session and the potential alleviation of the stress symptoms.
Colleen Butterworth: Art Therapy and Eating Disorders: Manifestations through Art
According to the literature, the sun is indicative of the patient's relationship with her father (Gibson, 1996, p. 8; Hall, 1994, p. 109; Fontana, 1993, p. 120; Chevalier & Gheerbrant, 1996, p. 945). During my internship at Strong Memorial Hospital, the sun emerged as a consistent theme in patients' artwork. Over time, many patients revealed that they had poor relationships with their fathers. The high occurrence of the sun symbol coupled with the patients' report of their distant relationship with their fathers seemed very significant. My thesis will explore the sun as it was used in the artwork of my patients. I will also discuss the findings of research that have been done on the father/daughter relationship with women and eating disorders. In addition, I will investigate the implications for treatment that my findings suggest.
Joseph Cady: Nine Lives: Art therapy with cystic fibrosis patients
This thesis is a study of a personal struggle through the decision and process of a lung transplant due to Cystic Fibrosis, in which this author incorporates life experiences and personal artwork. Through the combination of these experiences and artwork, the investigation will show progress of the author's ability to accept his life choices by way of his art experiences. This is a journey through his life to see how his art has helped him grow and accept his disease. As well the reader will view how his art has become a tool to release his inner feelings toward a lung transplant and overcoming these personal struggles.
Along with personal artwork, will be information about Cystic Fibrosis (CF) as well as contact with others who have been affected with CF. Review of the literature will incorporate diagnosis and treatment of Cystic Fibrosis as well as other methodologies of combining artwork, art therapy, and medicine.
Laura B. Callaway: Implications of Art Therapy Treatment of a Twin: Individual, dyad, and family therapy
This thesis will begin to explore the biological aspects of being a twin along with family therapy styles and family art therapy techniques used in the treatment of the twins presented in the case study. This area of research is relatively new due to the small amount of research found on this topic. This Family approach was set up to aid in the smooth transition of the identified client into the home. As the sessions progressed the children were able to get in touch with their emotions in a more productive way.
Sara Campanella: Personal Storytelling through Artwork: The effects on the self-esteem of at-risk youths
Three at-risk youths were asked individually to write their own personal story, make three pieces of art during three art-making sessions, and then exhibited their artworks in a formal art exhibition. Each participant filled out the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale before and after these activities. They were also interviewed regarding the effects of the activities. The results of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale showed an increase in one participant's self-esteem, a decrease in another and the third stayed the same.
While there was no clear direction of change noted from the self-esteem measure, information from the final interviews showed positive effects on each of the participants. These positive effects included an increase in self-confidence in artistic ability, and a belief that accomplishment was possible beyond earlier expectations. Lastly, one participant realized that he had unresolved past issues that needed attention. There may be therapeutic value to the use of storytelling, art and exhibition of art. This would be useful to explore in future studies with a larger sample.
Elyse Capell: The Emergence of Idiosyncratic Religious and Demonic Themes in Art Therapy: Implications for treatment
This paper will present three case studies in which religious and demonic themes emerged in the artwork of the clients during specific points in their art therapy treatment. In the first case, a powerful ceramic devil's head evolved as the portrait of a cottage supervisor in residential treatment. The implications of this image will be considered in view of the client's history, verbal associations to the piece, and the history of the "Horned God" as an archetypal image. In the following two cases, verbal associations to the artwork revealed that the clients were involved in what they perceived to be a personal struggle with the devil over control of their thoughts and behavior. As part of this discussion, I will explore environmental factors, personality traits and psychological processes that may predispose an individual to embrace paranormal belief systems which incorporate feelings of external control. Finally, I will offer several clinical considerations and alternatives for treatment in working with clients whose belief systems may be delusional or in contrast to the therapist's perspective.
In 1897, Freud wrote a letter to Fleiss in which he asked, "Do you remember m" always saving that the medieval theory of possession, that held by the ecclesiastical courts, was identical with our theory of a foreign body and the splitting of consciousness? Why were the confessions extracted under torture (i.e., witchcraft trials) so very like what my patients tell me under psychological treatment?" (p. 187)
Mary Lee Carosa: The Spiral Symbol: Its archetypal meaning as it relates to my spirituality
This heuristic study examined the spiral symbol’s archetypal historical meaning and relationship to my spiritual growth. Caroline Myss’, Sacred Contracts, was used to guide me through the spiritual journey as I identified my 12 personal archetypes which correspond to the 12 houses in astrology, then cast the archetypes on Myss’ Archetypal Wheel. With this tool, an examination of the specific issues identified in each house where each of my archetypes came to reside, uncovered the significance of how the spiral related to my soul purpose in this lifetime. Research of the spiral symbol was integrated with my personal connection toward this symbol ultimately leading the creation of my Archetypal Trinity of the Damsel, Goddess, and Queen. Through the intervention of the Goddess, the Damsel evolves into the Queen as there is recognition of the ego and Self’s interaction. From this process, I am able to ascertain my theory of art therapy practices and how I will use Jung’s theories in my work with clients.
Mara E. Cicaloni: Art therapy and the Bereaved
This thesis focuses on the use of art therapy as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of grief Current perspectives and theories relating to mourning and loss are reviewed. Art therapy as an intervention with a variety of populations is discussed. To amplify art therapy's usefulness in ameliorating issues relating to grief, a case history is presented of a bereavement art therapy group for people with developmental disabilities.
Barbara L. Cirillo: Art Therapy Treatment within an Alcohol and Substance Abuse Inpatient Treatment Facility
A Proposal for Funding with the current national and New York State political climate endorsing a managed care delivery system of health services, inpatient substance abuse treatment facilities foresee a decrease in treatment duration due to regulations regarding allowable payment reimbursement. These regulations will force the treatment facility to provide comparable quality of care in less treatment time.
The population served by DayBreak Alcoholism Treatment Facility (DATF) tends to reflect the current general trend of increased treatment attrition and readmission rates as well as an increased demand for treatment. DATF's general client profile currently reflects a client who is difficult to treat due to coexisting mental health issues, multiple cross addictions, physical health issues and depressed economic status.
DATF has identified that the utilization of art therapy as an adjunctive, experiential therapy can increase client involvement in the existing treatment program. Art therapy will enhance the diagnostic Art Therapy in Addiction Treatment assessment procedures, and accelerate client treatment gains by increasing self esteem, self awareness, problem solving skills, empowerment and by initiating new behaviors.
The following proposal seeks funding for a three year pilot program implementing art therapy treatment within an inpatient alcohol and substance abuse treatment program. The proposed art therapy program utilizes therapeutic intervention within individual and group treatment models, diagnostic assessment services and includes staff training and workshops. Evaluation procedures are included within the program format, the results of which will be presented to an agency review board during the final year of the proposed project to determine the treatment's effectiveness and viability.
Catherine A. E. Clauss & Marcy Mcclain: Reactive Communication
This chapter represents the artistic exploration of perception and communication. In an effort to lay the foundation of these principles, a brief developmental overview will be given. This overview will uncover some of the possible factors leading to perception, and communication styles in childhood that extend on through adolescence. The authors of this chapter feel that it is necessary in any helping practice to have knowledge of this development, as it greatly influences the resulting outcome of adult personality, and well being. This chapter will go on to discuss the semantics of the proposed intervention, and other interventions that seem to have a similar premise. From there, a discussion will be provided of the each group's experience with "Reactive Communication". The intervention will be offered to a control group, which will hopefully represent the baseline, or ideal intervention situation. "Reactive Communication" will be conducted with family groups to inspire more open communication. Additionally, "Reactive Communication" will be administered to peer groups in an effort to aid the development of realistic self-perception, and communication skills with both children, and adolescents. Finally, an analysis will be made of the relative success of "Reactive Communication" as a mode of intervention within the therapeutic process.
Casey Cline: From Caterpillars to Butterflies: Lessons on surviving grad school for art therapy students
I fully believe that whatever happens to you in life happens for a reason. If it wasn't for what you've been through or done you not only wouldn't be the person you are today, but you also wouldn't have reached the point you are today. For some of you your path to become an art therapist was a long one. you may have started down a different career path, but eventually over time, with support and by taking risks, you took the leap into the unknown. You have hopefully reached a peace or at least a career that spoke more to your heart, your life path. For others of you, the path that led you to art therapy may have been shorter, but no less of a struggle to reach your ultimate goal - to survive graduate school and become a full-fledged art therapist where you can help other people through their life struggles. Our lives may have led us to this certain career, but some of us may choose not to stop here. Perhaps art therapy for some is a stepping-stone to their "chosen" career. Others may go on to become psychologists, teachers, CASAC counselors, or open their own art gallery. But the one thing that everyone will have in common is that their chosen career will most likely be focused around what they learned during their career as an art therapist. This includes compassion, creativity, empathy, listening, caring, helping, and supporting. No matter where and what you end up doing, you will always be connected to the art therapy community and the role art therapy has played in your life.
Tara Marie Coffey: The Use of the Diagnostic Drawing Series with an Adolescent Population
This paper discusses the potential use of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (Cohen, Hammer, & Singer, 1988) as a possible indicator of psychopathology in an adolescent population. The Diagnostic Drawing Series has been established by art therapists and is designed to "elicit graphic messages from the patients about themselves, their world, and how they function in it" (Cohen, Hammer, & Singer, P.12). This three drawing measure is discussed at length. Information regarding its foundations, administration, materials, as well as validity and reliability data are included. Past research that has been completed using the DDS as a tool for predicting diagnosis is .also discussed. It is the assumption of this writer that a non-verbal means of revealing psychopathology in adolescents would be a great asset to the diagnostic process. The current study includes a total of 68 adolescents who completed the DDS (34 experimental/diagnostic subjects, and 34 control subjects). The methods and results of this study are presented within this paper.
Holly M. Cole: Queers Don’t Go to Heaven: One family’s struggle for acceptance
The stigma of homosexuality may lead to psychosocial problems for an adolescent such as; family conflict, anxiety, attempted suicide, and substance abuse (Coleman & Remafedi 1989). The US Department of Health and Human Services (1989), reports that gay and lesbian youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide. Gay and lesbian teenagers commit 30% of the completed suicides. Suicide is the leading cause of death for this group of youth. The stress from verbal and physical abuse puts this group at a high risk of low self-esteem, substance abuse, and suicide (Savin-Williams 1994). The Massachusetts Department of Education (1989), reports that high school students hear anti-gay epithets like "faggot" and "dyke" on an average of 30 times a day. Schools are often the site of violence against gay and lesbian teens due to the fact that most perpetrators of violence against this group are high school aged males (D'Augelli, 1992). Unfortunately schools continue to lack knowledgeable staff and counselors to assist gay and lesbian youth in a supportive and non-judgmental fashion.
Linda Connor: Walking in Circles: Combining labyrinths and art therapy
The purpose of this study was to combine the benefits of art therapy with the positive effects of walking a labyrinth with residents in a hospital setting. A four-week program was implemented combining art therapy and a three-circuit, c1assicallabyrinth. Five residents at the hospital were participants in the program. Together art therapy and walking a labyrinth can be used to recognize and express feelings to move toward a healthier and better quality of life. The practice of using a labyrinth and the technique of art therapy share a common goal of increasing self-awareness. Walking a labyrinth may help a person recognize their inner selves, while art therapy can help externalize and sublimate issues that may need to be addressed. Following the walking of the labyrinth, the researcher was looking for differences in the artwork from previous sessions. Overall, it was found that after walking the labyrinth, the participants at the hospital had an easier time beginning their artwork as compared to previous sessions. Also, the content of the work was less superficial and seemed to convey a deeper subject matter. Therefore, results indicated that the labyrinth was compatible with art therapy and together they may be used to increase the quality of life for individuals living in a hospital setting.
Carrie Contento: Is Clay a More Effective Tool in Expressing Emotions than Drawing with the Elderly Population?
This study looked at eight elderly individuals and attempted to discover whether two-dimensional or three-dimensional art mediums were better suited to meet their needs. The three dimensional medium of clay was implemented in a study with four participants and the two dimensional medium of drawing was used with four other participants to test whether the two dimensional medium or the three-dimensional medium allowed for a greater release of emotion with the elder individual. This research study concluded that regardless of dimensionality. Art Therapy was beneficial for the elder individual for a number of reasons. Art Therapy in the context of this study allowed the elder individual the opportunity to improve their self-image, to improve social bonds within the nursing home, and it allowed them the opportunity to open a bridge to a time past and share therapeutic stories about themselves in an attempt to move on with their life.
Aribania Cosey: Paternal Abandonment: A personal search for understanding
The purpose of this research is to help understand paternal abandonment and it's meaning for different people. After my parents separated, I began to hear feedback from friends and family about what happens to children who grow up without the father in the home. "A boy needs his father. He has to have a male role model. The girls are going to grow up and marry a man just like him. Those children are never going to have healthy relationships." These messages can be very damaging. However, is there some truth to these myths? This compilation will include research around the subject of paternal abandonment, case studies from my second-year internship using art therapy and interviews with family members who have personal experience around this topic.
Erin Costanza: Attachment to the Created Object: Artistic labor and the ability to let go
This study explores the relationship an artist has to the created object by determining the variables that have an affect on the artist's attachment and the ability to let go of their created object. This study also investigates the literature surrounding object relations, attachment, and creativity, which is juxtaposed with the current cultural trends of art in the 20th to 21st centuries. Through interviews and samples of each artist's work, variables that affect attachment to the created object were identified: in addition, variables affecting the artist's ability to let these objects go were also identified. Self identity in relation to the created object was the most significant variable effecting attachment. However, an emphasis on process, and not product was most associated with the need to let these objects go. This study used object relations theory and examined the knowledge and experiences of artists in the production of their art.
Cynthia Coyle: Circles of Confusion: The mandala as a therapeutic intervention with the disoriented elderly in a long term care facility
The intent of this paper is to explore the therapeutic value of making mandalas with the elderly, particularly those experiencing various degrees and forms of dementia. According to the DSM IV (1994) there is a biological basis for the dementia as which are "characterized by multiple cognitive deficits that include impairment in memory" (Couch, 1997, p.123). Feil also suggests that disorientation and confused behavior may be the result of unresolved developmental issues. Janet Beaujon Couch notes that art therapy with older adults diagnosed with dementia can provide an avenue for nonverbal expression of thoughts and feelings, facilitate communication, convey strengths and conflicts, assist in determining developmental levels, and serve as an aid in assessment and diagnosis.
Furthermore, art therapy can be used for reality orientation and socialization (Wald, 1986). As Wald notes, people with dementing illnesses need a focus. They are more likely to become "confused, agitated, and feel more inadequate when left too much on their own" (1986). A circle drawn on paper may act as a stimulus and focus for expression with all individuals, particularly for people with dementia (Couch, 1997).
The ultimate task of the elderly is to achieve resolution and maintain integrity (Feil, 1985). Identifying activities that engage the elderly, disoriented person cognitively, socially, and physically necessitates patience and creativity. The mandala, which is a symbol for completeness and wholeness, can be used as a support in achieving cohesion. Introducing the mandala shape and providing a focus for the disoriented elderly may help channel creative energies and perhaps provide clues that assist in treatment planning (Couch, 1997).
This study will be based in part on the work of Joan Kellogg. Kellogg observed hundreds of recurring patterns, images, and shapes in mandala drawings by several patient populations and organized these images into a circular design with 13 basic structures. Each structure represents stages of developing awareness or internal processes within an individual. In the elderly, changes in color perception and lack of visual acuity make it difficult to determine to what extent color relates to behavior. Thus, the mandala will be used primarily as an aid to reawakening the spirit, vitality, and creative spark in the disoriented elderly, and, to provide them with a link to other dimensions and a way to communicate their feelings. Also, a broad overview of the biopsychosocial aspects of aging that influence vitality at the end of the life span will be included and, thus provide a context for art as a therapeutic intervention.
Allison J. Creel: The Art Therapy Skills Assessment for Older Adults
The Art Therapy Skills- Assessment for Older Adults was created in order to aid the art therapist who is beginning work in a long term care setting with cognitively and physically impaired elderly. This thesis describes how the created assessment measures the physical and cognitive functioning levels of individuals with the aim of providing appropriate art therapy services. The rationale for using the assessment is addressed as is the manner in which it should be conducted. The Administering Conditions, the Directives used, and the Scoring Procedures are described and supported by research done previously in the field of gerontology. An attempt has been made to create a skills assessment that, unlike other assessments and tests published, is sensitive to the cognitive and physical impairments of older adults and this is, it is hoped, reflected in the overall picture provided by this assessment. It is believed that a tool such as this would be beneficial to art therapists as more are becoming employed in long term care settings and senior service agencies which have not previously used the services of an art therapist.
Michelle Ann DasFaias: A Case Study of an Art Therapy Bereavement Group With Adjudicated Adolescents
The adolescents that are depicted in this paper are individuals that have grown up in an environment that has subjected them to death at a young age. Most have learned to accept it, move on, and deny grief. There is a review of the literature on the unique circumstances of adolescents dealing with bereavement. I will then chronicle the art therapy bereavement group that I co-facilitated in a facility for adjudicated adolescents.
Gretchen Countryman and Jewell Dawson: Mask Imagery as a Means of Exploring Self-Perception in Individuals from Indigenous Cultures
This study reflects the participant's effort to image a progression of change through mask imagery. Each participant imaged a mask in response to the directive given for a particular session. The participants and researcher assessed if change did occur over the three sessions, and if there was any resonance or repetition of symbols and/or meaning within an individual participant's series of three masks, through group discussions and written responses to questionnaires. The researcher found that the collected data pointed to the fact that mask imagery may be a beneficial medium to aide a person from one culture realize his/her self-perception and transition into another culture. Over a period of three sessions, these participants were able to image the mask forms and communicate both verbally and in writing how they identified with the completed mask form. Indications during group processing, group discussions, and written responses of the mask images were that each participant realized the value she holds of her own culture and learned something about the other two participant's culture. In addition to differences in cultural traditions, participants learned of similarities between each culture.
This form of experiential may be used in any defined culture, not just indigenous cultures, as a means of validating and recognizing an individual's feelings. A culture may be defined as a way of life, or a society. Other cultures that may benefit from this mask imagery could be the sight impaired, deaf populations, individuals with language barriers, the handicapped, substance abusers, the elderly, or physically abused individuals to help realize self perception. As with the indigenous cultures, it is beneficial for the therapist to have prior understanding of an individual's culture before therapy begins.
Elizabeth Davis: The Emerging Artist with Dementia: A search for meaning and emphasis in therapy and the art world
For persons suffering from progressive dementia, art therapy has become a profound tool for a client's understanding and awareness of their own individuality and depth. This investigation describes the journey of how art experience became an important and profound form of communication for one client living with a progressing dementia. While describing the developing importance of art for this client his art work was examined both in an art therapy context, and as 'art objects' in the wider context of the art world. The concept of 'outsider art' was investigated examining the validity of its implications.
This therapist's own countertransference issues were then examined, exploring emotional reactions of what may often be experienced when delving into another person's reality, particularly in the case of client's living with dementia.
Pamela M. Davis: Drawing the Bell Jar: A personal narrative
This paper explores the dynamics of Bipolar II Disorder through an account of one person's experiences as a recipient of mental health services within inpatient and outpatient psychiatric facilities. The art work of this client is analyzed to illustrate how art therapy can help restore health to persons having tendencies toward depression and anxiety. This account also includes the transition one individual makes from client to therapist and discusses the issues of transference and countertransference within the therapeutic alliance. Photographs of the art work is included.
Julia Deets: Reflections of Growing Up with a Schizophrenic Parent: Coping skills, personal and expressive responses through art
This exploratory study looks at the way adult children learned to cope in living in a chaotic environment. It studies the long term effects of growing up with a schizophrenic parent, the parent's behavior, their parenting patterns, the attachment between the mother and child, and the coping skills that adult children used. This study discusses interviews and personal art responses of seven adult children who grew up with a schizophrenic parent in a chaotic environment. It analyzes their art work and responses to their artwork.
Jennifer DeRoller: Puppets as Their Words: Using puppets as a medium of self-expression with children
This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of puppet therapy, as a projective method for expression of feelings, thoughts and behaviors, when working with children ages three to six years. The participants of the study consisted of 18 children of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, enrolled in a Preschool and Kindergarten program. Twenty-four pre-selected “Feeling Cards,” created by Kusche and Greenberg (1994) were used within this study, as a developmentally and age-appropriate measure of mood and emotion. In addition, participants partook in a group art therapy intervention centering on puppetry, lasting approximately 45 minutes in length. Each intervention consisted of a creation a self-representational puppet. The analysis of the pre- and post-test results failed to show any significant changes between uncomfortable and comfortable feelings. Despite the results puppet therapy has been shown to increase expression, as well as allowing the child to establish a sense of self, and allowing the child to overcome resistance. In general children who chose a comfortable feeling prior to the puppet intervention, chose a comfortable feeling following the puppet intervention.
Nicole Desmond: An Objection to Art: Resistance in the male art therapy client
The purpose of this thesis is to examine resistance that is exhibited by the male art therapy client, either in an initial objection to art making, or resistance displayed throughout the entire therapeutic process. To understand the origin of this resistance, we will take a look at current research based on gender differences in therapy, the influence of gender roles, and the socialization process. We will also look at responses to a questionnaire given out to both male and female art therapists currently working in the field, as well as this author's responses and current work in a correctional setting. This research is intended to facilitate both questions and ideas regarding the best way to approach resistance in the male art therapy client. Specifically, emphasis is placed upon what approaches and exercises are successfully utilized, as well as the types of media and art materials that are best received by the male client. While resistance does not exist with every male art therapy client, it is necessary to remain cognizant of the gender differences that do exist, and adjust our approach when necessary.
Monica Devine: Using Creativity to Increase the Identity of Adolescents in Foster Care
Life story books have been shown to be an effective tool for addressing personal issues when working with youth in foster care. The final product can be used as a transitional object, as well as to create a sense of connection with ones' past. Adolescents in foster care lack close adult role models to provide examples of successful identity conflict resolutions. Therefore, this connection with their past becomes especially crucial. Art therapy has been shown to increase ones' sense of identity, and can be combined with concrete data to develop an answer to the question, "Who am I?". The four youth in this study completed artistic projects based on their past, present, and future, in a therapeutic situation that allowed them to symbolically exert control over their lives. The youth all displayed increased insight, and produced material for further discussions, but the results only revealed a trend towards improvement of their sense of identity. The results, however, display the need for art therapy services with this population.
Andrea M. Dionese: Hidden Resilience in American Youth: Uncovering sources of inner strength
This research study explored a delinquent adolescent's personal meaning behind his or her behaviors through the context of culture, family and environment. More particularly, how their resiliency was unearthed through the art therapy process. This qualitative case study used a Postmodem theoretical framework, in combination with an art therapy directive. The case study features one male adolescent from a chemical dependency residential facility. In five art therapy sessions he discussed sequential periods of his life and created artwork that represent each of those periods. He started with his earliest memories (ages 3-5) and ended at the present time (ages 15-16). This study examines and discusses the cause and effect of the participants' delinquent behaviors as well as an exploration of his resilient traits. Art therapy was used as a tool to help access personal meaning and unearth resilient attributes.
Amy Rose Dubin: Art Therapy’s Role with Acupuncture
This paper exposes the benefits of art therapy as a follow-up treatment to acupuncture. Methods of art therapy sustain the results of acupuncture and instill the maximum enhancements of acupuncture detoxification. When art therapy is combined with acupuncture, this interdisciplinary approach can provide the best channel through which one's emotions can be accessed thus producing greater efficacy of treatment. This paper will address the following: People who have become more relaxed as a result of treatment with auricular acupuncture are able to experience more benefits when art therapy is the priority follow up mode of treatment.
Sivan D. Eisen: A Comparison of Verbal and Visual Life Review with Older Adults
This study explores the benefits of visual life review with older adults, by asking the question, "Does visual life review help older adults deal with last stage of life issues?"
Research was comprised of comparing the outcomes of two groups of older adults. Each participant in the control group received three 45 minute sessions of verbal life review therapy and the participants in the experimental group received three 45 minute sessions of visual life review therapy. At the end of each session for all participants were asked questions to elicit information that would help determine if the intervention assisted in addressing the issues that arise in the last stage of life and if the participant felt the sessions was helpful. The most evident differences between the two groups were that the visual sessions ran noticeably longer and the participants also verbally affirmed that details and memories were coming back that they had forgotten. These two results may demonstrate a positive impact of adding art therapy to the life review technique when working with older adults.
Sarah L. Eksten: Cognitive Behavioral Art Therapy with Behaviorally Aggressive Children: Exploring gender difference
This study examined color usage and gender differences in color associated to emotions of children identified as behaviorally aggressive. This study is based on data through observational learning and color used by forty-seven children, ranging from six to eight years of age who participated in weekly cognitive behavioral art therapy groups. Various levels of aggression in boys and girls were observed during the art therapy groups conducted. Information collected was analyzed qualitatively using color theories. Analysis of the children's color usage determined that boys and girls identified as having aggressive behaviors use colors differently with identified assorted meanings. However, some commonalities do exist in the genders when associating the feelings of "fear" and "anger" with colors. Although colors contain different meanings for different children, the use of color helps children's expression of unconscious thoughts without using words.
Laura English: The Impact of Managed Care on Art Therapy
It is clear that the health care industry is undergoing dramatic change. Fueled by astronomic increases in costs, "managed" care policies seek to control costs by controlling access. If art therapists are to find a place within this framework, they need to understand the models and techniques that are widely used, they need to "learn the language" of managed care. This paper seeks to explore that language from a general perspective as well as from the unique perspective of the art therapist. In addition, a small sample of art therapists, through the use of a questionnaire, share some features of the impact of managed care policies on the field of art therapy. The results of these questionnaires will be summarized and related to the impact of managed care policy in general.
Amanda Finkle: Exploring the Effectiveness of Painting Recurring Nightmares: A case study
This study focused on the effects of painting nightmares on sleep patterns and daily habits of a Vietnam Veteran diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. The subject participated in ten sessions, following a trauma treatment model, which included six sessions painting his nightmare images. The sessions involving the nightmares focused on altering the nightmares and developing meaning behind them. The subject showed an increase in the amount of sleep he received at night. He also showed an increase in self-esteem.
Teresa L. Finacune: Using Self-Portraits in Phototherapy to Identify Effects of Transracial Adoption on Identity Development
Currently, there exists a lack of knowledge about the specific effects of identity development in transracial adoptees. As the frequency of transracial adoption rises, the call for research follows accordingly. Knowing that it has particular effects on both the adoptee and the adoptive family, the implications for the use of the results reaches far, affecting the individual, the family, the community and society at large. The logistics surrounding transracial adoption produce profound effects that reach across continents. Confounded by race, culture, ethnicity and adoption, the identity development of the adopted individual is at once unique and complex. Conducting this study, and asking the question, "What are the effects of transracial adoption on identity development?" allows one to better understanding the unique experience of the transracial adoptee and his or her sense of self, and opens the doors to further research.
This study seeks to answer the question, "How can self-portraits in phototherapy aid in identifying the effects of transracial adoption on identity development?" It explores literature on race, culture and ethnicity. It investigates literature on adoption, transracial adoption, identity and identity development, and stereotypes. The study also looks at phototherapy and the use of self-portraits as a modality for self-exploration. This study examines the lives and experiences of five Korean adopted individuals transracially adopted into Caucasian families through verbal and artistic process.
Jessica Flanagan: Youth Expression through Art: The development of a creative outlet for troubled adolescents
The adolescent ego is dependent upon self-expression and creativity (Linesch, 1988; Kahn, 1999; Riley, 1999). This extreme self-expression can be a stepping-stone for releasing emotional or physical stress the adolescent most certainly is facing. "Art therapy, more than any other therapeutic approach, has demonstrated it provides the creative opportunity to integrate a positive, active, non threatening therapy with the intrinsic talents and abilities of the adolescent stage of development" (Riley, 1999, p 84). In this study a group of 7 freshmen from a local high school were selected to participate in an art expression group. These students were chosen based on the negative behavior they showed in the classroom, which included not paying attention, minimal participation, and acting out. All but one of the students had a failing record as well. The goal of the group was to give the students an outlet to express some areas of conflict in their lives by providing them with a stable, supportive group outside of the classroom. Besides the main goal other goals included raising self-esteem and social interaction skills in the process. It was hypothesized that by participating in the group the students would be able to concentrate more within the classroom. The students were given a short version of the Conners' rating scale (measures behavior) for adolescents before the group began and after it ended in 4 weeks. The students' teachers were also given the Conners' teachers rating scale, which was to be filled out weekly. Each of these scales measured noticeable behavior in the classroom, positive and negative. It was found that by participating in the group the student's negative behavior decreased slightly but not statistically significantly.
Meg Foit: Examining the Impact of Group Art Therapy on Battered Women and Their Sense of Self
Depriving a woman from her ability to make personal choices hinders her from developing an autonomous identity. As domestic violence affects partner relationships of all ethnicities, religious affiliations, and socioeconomic statuses, it also has no gender preference as both men and women fall victim to the abuse of another. For this research study, the focus of the information collected was directed towards women. Over 85 % of the population affected by domestic violence is women (Stokrocki, 2004). A qualitative and quantitative approach was utilized to assess the women's sense of self during and after the group art therapy process. The qualitative research process began with a quantitative inquiry followed by further qualitative inquiry (Mac1agan, D., 1999). Using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), this researcher assessed battered women's self esteem and found an increase (Pretest score = 19.75 & Posttest Score = 21.675). With these findings and those in future research, facilitators for women who have experienced domestic violence may begin to appreciate the benefit of the group process.
Lisa Raye Garlock: A Visual Journey
The journey which begins with birth and continues through death is shaped by growth and change throughout life. Patterns repeat, are broken, reform and are plaited across generations. The span of human interaction is boundless; nothing is unique, yet when experienced personally, everything is
This culminating project explores the influences of family relationships, personal development, and family life-cycle stages using art to create a visual journey. The genogram, family of origin and life cycle stages are each interpreted artistically, with emphasis on the unique aspects of growing up in a military family. Theoretical underpinnings are the systems work of Murray Bowen. This project culminates in an exhibit at the Pyramid Arts Center, opening on May 31, 1996.
Kimberly Gibson: A Visual Investigation: Artwork by children and adolescents receiving chronic blood transfusion therapy for sickle cell anemia or thalassemia
Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia are chronic, life-threatening illnesses. As such, they are unquestionably distressing, and have the potential to significantly affect psychological functioning. This thesis is a visual investigation of the artwork produced by adolescents and children, receiving chronic blood transfusions as treatment for either sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. The primary purpose of this visual investigation is to provide additional insight into the impact of these illnesses as demonstrated through artwork.
Seven children and adolescents (4 with sickle cell anemia and 3 with thalassemia) participated in the study. Participation included completing five art therapy assessments, an Introduction Image, a Bridge Assessment, a Self-Portrait, a Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD), and an image of illness, and filling out three psychological questionnaires, Speilberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAIC), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), and Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Scale (CNSIE). The resulting artwork was assessed on an individual basis using published art therapy literature to formulate individual case studies. The case studies examined the possible reasons a subject may have drawn a specific image in relation to the psychosocial impact of his or her illness. Following the case studies, the drawings are presented by assessment, in order to observe any overall trends between images drawn, type of illness and score on the psychological questionnaires.
Diane Goergen: A Creative Art Therapy Program for Adults with Developmental Disabilities
A Creative Art Therapy Program for Adults with Developmental Disabilities is a curriculum outlined in workbook fashion describing the "in VISION" program. The "in VISION" program was specifically created for Continuing Developmental Services, Inc., a day treatment program for developmentally disabled adults in Rochester, New York. The program is designed to fit itself into already established parameters and constraints of state regulations and requirements while at the same time being truly innovative in its approach of utilizing the creativity of the participants in such a setting. The "in VISION" mission statement lends itself well to Continuing Developmental Services, Inc. philosophy of "Empowering People for Life". Four aspects of utilizing an art therapy approach in a day treatment setting for developmentally disabled adults is outlined. Crises intervention, individual art therapy, group art therapy and the concept of a group "VOICE", or artistic exposure in the community are all described in terms of rational and the mechanics of documentation. Case studies are revealed with photos and artwork for each of the four art therapy focuses to underscore, enhance and celebrate the subjectivity of an art therapy approach.
Bernadette Goral: Relaxation Techniques, Stress Management and the Reduction of Performance Anxiety for Competitive Athletes Using Art Therapy
Athletes differ from the normal population, and in that usually have more visual perceptual skills rather than verbal skills, therefore Art Therapy presents itself as a logical psychotherapy for athletes. The study gained insight into the role of imagery with athletes. The participants were given a pre and post questionnaire, in which they were asked to describe stressful experiences. The questions focused on arousal, stress, and anxiety that may accompany performance. Athletes completed the questionnaire in the first session and then participated in an art experiential. The study consisted of four sessions of art therapy done over one month's time. Each art experience's primary goal was relaxation, with a secondary goal of more tolerance of anxiety, and coping with difficult situations. The techniques used during the research were the scribble drawing, guided imagery, visualizations, and the House- Tree-Person (HTP) assessment. The assessments of stress levels were given again, and the results were compared to see if the art therapy sessions had successfully affected the athletes stress level. The cognitive general went up indicating athletes using imagery for strategies relating to competitive
events. And, although the motivational general arousal did not increase four out of the five categories based on the Sports Imagery questionnaire did in fact increased leads us to believe using imagery and art therapy with athletes is beneficial.
Alayne Gosson: “. . . and they came and they made art”: Considerations for an open art studio
As an intern, the author was given the challenge to create an art therapy program at Threshold, a youth services provider, in their alternative school program. The students, 17-25 year-old high school drop-outs, were returning to attain their General Education Diploma (GED). The administration desired to graduate "well-rounded individuals" from The Learning Center (TLC). The objective for the art therapy component was to provide an experience for the students in which to develop creative thinking abilities, expose them to the arts, and promote the competence of each individual.
An open art studio seemed a sensible and exciting concept for the students and for this writer, but developing the program was to be a challenge. The students, who presented themselves as willful, decisive, and motivated, appeared to be a good fit for an expressive setting. Staff members showed great interest in the products and process of art therapy and the open studio program.
The student body was a robust mix of adolescents and young adults, from inner city neighborhoods. Over 90% of them were pregnant or parenting. The cultural makeup was African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian. Overall life themes included failure, poverty, abandonment, substance abuse, death, hardship, and violence.
The open studio was available to students and staff during lunch breaks and after school, also one class period per week. The author quickly discovered that having the space and materials available was not sufficient enough incentive for participation from this group. This writer opted to risk self-disclosure and engaged in some tentative, yet honest, art-making. My foray into the uncomfortable paid off. The studio became approachable - even busy at times. Most typically, artwork was begun and abandoned; a telling metaphor for what was to come.
Susan Gottfried: Multiple Personality Disorder
The purpose of this thesis is to explore Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) - the past and present theoretical framework, the characteristics of MPD, and the efficacy of art therapy within this population. Individual patients' work will be contributed to add a personal account of their subjective experience.
Bess Green: A Phenomenological Study Using Horovitz-Darby’s Belief Art Therapy Assessment (BATA) With a Sample of Jehovah’s Witnesses
There is currently no agreed upon method for assessing spiritual development and needs in the clinical setting. Many clinicians now regard spirituality as a valid dimension of personality and others advocate that any crisis may present spiritual implications for the individual This study utilizes Horovitz-Darby's Belief Art Therapy Assessment (BAT A, 1994, in press) to assess the instrument's possible contributions to a global art therapy assessment and to add to a database of spiritual imagery. This author explores definitions of "belief," "religion," "faith" and "spirituality. She reviews and applies Fowler's model of spiritual development to a phenomenological study utilizing the BATA with a population of seven individuals from a non-clinical, volunteer sample of Jehovah's Witnesses aged 5 to 55. Individual results are given with special consideration of each individual's artistic developmental level, after Lowenfeld and Brittain (1975), and Fowler's stage of spiritual development. Use of yellow in God representations, utilization of the upper half of the page and a lack of concordance between the two developmental scales are noted. This author concludes with personal observations on the use of the BATA as an assessment tool and thoughts concerning its application in a clinical setting.
Maria Regas Gregori: The Book of Fear: Comparing male & female expressions of fear through art in a substance abuse population
Across a period of four to six weeks, a group of chemically dependent men and a group of chemically dependent women, ages 24 to 55, participated in a study examining the gender differences in chemically dependent male and female expressions of fear. The study collected and analyzed visual and verbal data, using artistic inquiry and content analysis.
Megan A. Haas: The Mandala as a Classroom Tool
Fifteen students between the ages of 8-11years with a range of diagnoses participated in a two-week study examining the effects of an art therapy exercise on disruptive classroom behavior. They were selected from two inner city special-education classrooms, and one day treatment classroom. This study proposes that the mandala might be an effective tool in calming and focusing children struggling with psychological disorders. The mandala, a circular form of artwork, has been used in cultures across the world for healing and meditation, and was introduced into modem psychotherapy by Carl lung. The participating students were asked to create a mandala every other morning, in class. Teachers filled out a Conner's Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-39) daily for each participant to track and compare disruptive behaviors on days when the mandala exercise was administered, versus those it was not. Though results were not statistically significant, there was a trend towards improved behaviors on mandala days for special-education students. Results with the day-treatment students were inconclusive.
Jennifer Haggerty: The Person Picking An Apple From a Tree (PPAT) Assessment with Adolescents in Group Homes
This study develops previous research on the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment and the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) by conducting the assessment with adolescents as opposed to adults. Adolescents in the group home program at St. Joseph’s Villa are placed voluntarily or court ordered as a result of juvenile delinquency, parental neglect, a CPS referral, or for a PINS referral. With diagnoses of Emotional Disturbances, Learning Disorders, PTSD, ADHD, ODD, and/or CD, as well as histories of substance abuse and physical/sexual abuse and neglect, 9 female and 5 male adolescents (15-18yrs.) with full consent completed the PPAT. A quasi-experimental evaluation design was used; the PPAT was completed and assessed using the FEATS and Content Tally Sheet developed by Gantt & Tabone (1998) to assess graphic equivalents of symptoms for major depression, bipolar disorder (manic phase), schizophrenia, and cognitive disorders. Results indicate that using the PPAT and FEATS with adolescents in group homes may be useful in identifying symptoms of the 4 disorders; further research is needed to develop the use of the PPAT and FEATS.
Beth A. Hauck: Influences of the Group Mural Making Process on Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents Self-Esteem
This research study is based upon the naturalistic-ethnographic and quasi-experimental approach that utilizes observations and open-ended interviews to study the perceptions and influences of an experience. In this thesis the experience is the creation of a mural, from the planning stages to presentation of the completed mural. Seven Severely Emotionally Disturbed (SED) adolescents whom attend Crestwood Secondary Education Center were provided with the opportunity to participate in an art therapy group utilizing the mural creation process to measure their self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) was given before and after the experience.
With this scale it was hypothesized that the SED adolescents' self-esteem would have increased after the process. It was determined by analyzing the results that only one of the seven participants self-esteem increased, the other participants self-esteem were maintained. This study presents and discusses the mural process, including the history of murals, murals used as a form of art therapy, methodology, and results of the RSE scale and group observations. It also provides a discussion of the outcomes and future implications.
Ruth Hauser: A Retrospective of Life through Masks: Masks as a metaphor for transformation
This work describes my rendition of masks which chronicle transformational elements in my life. The masks were exhibited at the Austin-Harvard Gallery from March 4th to April 2nd, 1994. The personal insights gained through the reminiscence of these significant events are expressed in the rendition of the work and parallel the ritual use of masks for healing in African, Native American and Mexican cultures.
Mindy Hawkins: Preschool Art Therapy: Unlocking the treasure
Young children and their families often find themselves in need of mental health services relating to experiences of loss, trauma, socio-cultural assimilation, personal-social adjustment, or from interruptions in the process of early development. Early intervention is crucial for preschool children identified with psycho-social concerns or significant developmental delays. Art therapy is a highly effective modality from which to provide mental health services for preschool children. The art therapist facilitates healing, development, and change with young children at their basic emotional, sensory, creative, and physical levels through the combined use of art, sand, and therapeutic play. Two male and three female preschool children provided artwork, child-therapist dialogue, and personal insights regarding the importance of both process and product in their individual courses of therapy. Information for parents, caregivers, therapists, administrators, and other professionals regarding the benefits of providing art therapy for preschool children in need of psychological services is presented through research, children's artwork, and the therapist's experience of working as an art therapy intern at a center-based preschool children's center.
Gretel Hepler: Emotional Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury: The role of art therapy and journaling
This study uses art work and journaling to explore emotional recovery in traumatic brain injury. Through a case study of one mans use of art, writing, and discussion, emotional expression is explored. This man met for ten weeks with an art therapist to discuss his emotional experience with his injury. He was unfamiliar with art therapy, and had never looked at his emotions related to his injury before. He was able to use art therapy to communicate his thoughts and gain new perspectives on his injury. It was concluded that attention paid to emotions resulting from brain injury, advances the recovery process.
Elaine M. Hilfiker: Phototherapy as a Coping Strategy to Support Latency Age Children Experiencing Loss
Children all over the world are experiencing depressive symptoms brought on by feelings of loss and grief. Little research has been done in the realm of this topic, yet the statistics are rising for Childhood Depression. In addition, research shows that depressed adults were depressed as children. This research paper delves into the healing qualities of photo art therapy and narrative therapy and the identification of coping strategies that the process evokes. Four children between the ages of seven and twelve aided in the experimental study of a phototherapy technique: A Blue Day Book. The children used cameras to create their own "Blue Day Book" which documents what the participants blue days may look like as well as their happy feelings. Using a blank book, the children layout these feelings and add captions to each picture. Afterwards they discuss their book with the group or privately with the facilitator. Information gathered from a Depression Self-Rated Scale performed prior to the experiment as well as after and a post-anecdotal survey led the researcher to believe that the photo art therapy process with narrative captions did in fact decrease depressive symptoms among the participants. The statistics gathered from the research project showed an overall average decrease in depressive symptoms to be 38.75%. In addition, based on responses gathered from the post-survey and the Life Transitions Center Storm Clouds and Rainbows Evaluation, the children found the process helpful in coping through the grieving process.
Rosemary Hillard: Holistic/Humanistic Art Psychotherapy and HIV
Throughout my eight years of experience with people with HIV / AIDS, first as a volunteer for a local service agency and presently as an adjunct therapist and art therapy intern in the HIV Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of a major hospital, my personal observation has been that individuals who tend to do best and survive the longest are more often than not those who have gained a sense of control over the design of their lives. This is my own simplistic and humanistic observation of a phenomenon that the modern medical community refers to as psychoneuroimmunology - a medical paradigm reflective of the same powerful body-mind-spirit connection that has been utilized as a healing force by shamans of diverse cultures since recorded history.
Through the use of vignettes and case studies, this heuristic research is intended to illustrate the diversity of the population and explore the significant benefits that art therapy can afford to individuals with HIV / AIDS; benefits that may enhance both their physical and psychological well-being.
Masami Ichikawa: Cultural impact on the perceptions of aging and well-being
This qualitative hypothesis-generating study examines the cultural impact on the perceptions of aging and well-being among 4 female Americans, 4 female Japanese, and 4 female Japanese immigrants in the United States age 50 years and older. Qualitative data is collected in the form of artistic inquiry, interviews, and the questionnaires. The 12 subjects' responses are presented along with short narratives. The results illustrate diversity of images of well-being in later life from the perspective of older adults themselves, unique responses derived from their original cultures, and complexity of immigrants' perceptions resulting from acculturation. Combination of verbal and nonverbal modes of expression highlights strength of art in research as well as art therapy in the multicultural setting.
Kathryn Irwin: Cultural related imagery: in the Latino chemical dependency population
In the course of a client's treatment and the development of a therapeutic relationship there are multiple areas the therapist and the client must address. Trust, communication, and an understanding of the client's identification within his or her own thoughts and culture must be addressed. It is hypothesized an individual's culture affects treatment and artwork. The therapist should be knowledgeable of cultural norms and the implications they may have on the client's treatment. The study looks at the occurrence of 'cultural related' imagery in a Latino population group and non-Latino population group while the participants are addressing their chemical dependency treatment.
Laura Jakobovic: Get a Job: A resource manual for graduate art therapy students
This proposal will explore methods to making contacts with organizations and establishing guidelines for new art therapists in presenting an Art Therapy program to pre-existing organizations. Topics addressed will include concerns regarding finding a job, how to make contacts, presentations, proposals, program development, budgeting and forms.
Jeannette L. Johnson: An artistic interpretation of mental disorders
The intent of this thesis is to show how artwork, created by the author, can be used to illustrate specific mental disorders. Diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV has been cited for each disorder that has been illustrated. The primary function of the DSM-IV is to provide diagnostic criteria to improve the reliability of diagnostic judgments. The intent is to use the images, created by the author, in conjunction with the DSM-IV to further enhance the experience and understanding of the diagnosis portrayed.
The author shared experiences of clients, treated by the author, who were diagnosed with the specific disorders portrayed. The images were designed with the intent to give a taste of the real emotions that pulse through the veins of people who suffer from mental illness. The author suggests the therapeutic value of using these images with clients as well as the therapeutic value of creating them.
Jennifer Johnston: Art Therapy: A way of expression for victims, children and abusers of domestic violence
Domestic Violence is an underreported crime yet it is the major cause of injury to women. Types of abuse include, physical, sexual, economic, emotional, and psychological. The indicators of each type of abuse are discussed in detail. Characteristics of abused women, children from violent homes, and abusers are also discussed along with some common misconceptions. A useful component in helping with assessment, diagnostic indicators, and the client's own personal growth has been the use of art therapy. This writer gives case examples of art therapy work done in a battered women's shelter with the victims, children, and families of domestic violence as well as, case examples with abusers in a court ordered counseling program. Through the artwork, victims were able to acknowledge, understand and cope with their feelings. Children were able to understand domestic violence is not their fault and that it is okay to have angry, depressed, scared, and concerned feelings about what goes on in their families. The artwork helped perpetrators examine their lifestyles.
Kimberly Kavanah: Effects of Suggestion on Art Making Versus Narrative Responses
A 2x2 between subject study was conducted using 32 participants from Nazareth College in Rochester, NY. The aim of the study was to look at the effect of suggestion vs. no-suggestion on the perception of participants. Analyses were performed across suggestion, as well as across condition, drawing or narrative. It was hypothesized that those participants in the experimental suggestion condition would show more indicators, and their narrative and responses would be coded as having more implied perception than those from the control, no suggestion group. Independent groups’ t-tests found no main effects for the condition or suggestion groups, however a two way factorial ANOVA revealed significant interaction effects for two questions from coding sheets utilized. In the case of the particular question, “overall perception of piece”, the ANOVA revealed that the suggestion group was higher from the drawing group than from the narrative, and the no-suggestion group was rated higher from the narrative perspective than the drawing.
Beth Kern: The Use of Art Therapy for Assessing Grief and Loss During Alcoholism Treatment
The literature on alcoholism and on grief and loss is reviewed. Art therapy as a treatment modality in dealing with grief and loss in alcoholism treatment programs is reviewed. Case reports of art therapy sessions from the author's experience are presented, and the benefits of art therapy explained.
Eric Kingsbury: The Significance of Diagnosis: Personal journeys of being diagnosed with adult ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, and it is estimated to affect 3 to 5% of children by the age of 7. ADHD symptoms continue into adulthood and affect 4 to 8% of adults, some of whom never know they have it. This exploratory study looked at the personal experiences of 3 individuals being diagnosed with adult ADHD. Participants explored their thoughts and feelings about seeking diagnosis, being tested, and finally receiving the diagnosis. They were asked to respond by using artwork and any form of writing they chose. All 3 of the participants had a different story of how ADHD has affected their lives, but all agreed to a feeling of relief after being diagnosed with ADHD. With a diagnosis, the participants were able to change their lives for the better. Through these changes, they were able to acknowledge the importance and significance of having a diagnosis.
Virginia Kirtland: Art Therapy and Aphasia: A case study
This thesis is the case study of using art therapy as a form of communication with a 64 year old severely aphasic man. The man was confined to a nursing home, and had suffered much trauma and many losses in his life. Those losses include severe disfigurement, blindness, and partial paralysis. The thesis includes research on aphasia and it's treatment as well as a literature review on the use of art therapy with aphasia and other brain injuries.
Joyce Kliman: The Art of Healing: The coat of art therapy
Culture is a layer that we wear which has visible and invisible aspects. It affects every role that we play; it is part of our operating system. By operating system I equate it with a computer operating system, which is operating in the background, running all of the other programs. Likewise culture is something that is always there in the background, running and influencing all of the other roles that we play. I have always been interested in studying and learning about other cultures. I have been particularly interested by the visual representations of a culture: the arts, crafts, architecture, music, dance, food and costume. Given my fascination and experience with culture, clothing and costume it seemed only fitting to incorporate all of this into a final culminating project which I am calling "The Art of Healing: The Coat of Art Therapy".
The paper will follow the journey of one of the Coats of Culture from the travel to the culture to the creation of the piece of artwork. I will explore some of the cultural contexts and meaning behind clothing and costume, examining a few of the costumes that are synonymous with a culture like the kimono and sari. Then I will talk about the role of Art Therapist, and how I have incorporated this into a visual representation of the role of Art Therapy.
Theresa B. Knopp: Am I ready? A thesis
Heuristic and phenomenological research approaches are used to pose questions about personal and clinical self-esteem issues. The author's life stories and facts as well as case vignettes from professional roles help review major elements of self-esteem theories. Quantitative research is used to define self-esteem and take an in-depth look at its major components and precursors. Significant others (in particular our families of origin) are considered the most important situational factor in self-esteem development. The action, discipline, and structure inherent in work related tasks and a sense of accomplishment in the products of labor promote positive self-esteem. A detailed clinical case study is used to illustrate how art therapy can be an effective modality for self-esteem issues. Psychological paradigms and theories are reviewed in order to explain the author's own approaches to therapy. The concepts of authenticity and dialoging with one's artwork are broached as the author / art therapist uses her own artwork to discuss self-acceptance, growth, and change.
Heidi Kranz: Transference Manifestations in the Abandoned Child
This paper seeks to explore the traumatic narcissistic damage that is created by abandonment. A case presentation, with a severely disturbed adolescent male in residential treatment, is used to illustrate the intense nature of the transference relationship. Art therapy served as a vehicle for communication, emotional expression, and helped to convey this adolescent's sense of rejection and failure. The creative process provided the support and self esteem essential to work through abandonment issues. The multiple losses experienced throughout this individual's lifetime had a profound impact on the therapeutic journey endeavored.
Jordan Kroll: The Living Image: Worship art as a new spiritual language
This qualitative study is a look into the phenomenon of Worship Art, herein defined as visual art created during a religious service or event. The historical ties between art and religion are discussed to better understand the context out of which Worship Art has been birthed. Some attention is also devoted to the interplay of both of these domains with the field of psychology. The literature contains evidence of an increased focus on spiritual issues in therapeutic settings as well as a growing movement within the Christian church to embrace modern culture and communicate spiritual truths in effective ways. In this study, thirteen participants and the author relate their personal experiences and beliefs concerning Worship Art. The results indicate that this new manifestation of religious art enhances the expression of spirituality for artists and adds renewed meaning and purpose to the lives of those it touches. Worship Art is revealed as a powerful and prophetic spiritual language that may be of great significance to holistic healing and field of art therapy.
Emily R. Krueger: Evaluating the Power of the Art Therapy Thesis Project: An opportunity for personal growth and development
This thesis study examined the experience of completing a Masters Art Therapy thesis project in order to evaluate the opportunity for personal growth and development. Six volunteers from Nazareth College of Rochester participated in this heuristic research study, as well as two past graduates of the program. The original six participants completed a questionnaire and piece of artwork each month between
November and March recounting their experience with the thesis process as it evolved. The two additional participants completed a one-time questionnaire and artwork to provide reflection on their process one year later. Responses were examined for factors in creativity and individual development. Results found that participants who experienced the most significant number of creative factors reported a process of individual growth and development in response to completing a thesis. Those participants who experienced the fewest creative factors did not report insight into a growth experience.
Hui Min Kua: A Multicultural Approach to House-Tree-Person: A differential analysis of art responses by international students from China, India, and Malaysia
This project underscores the movement of art therapy as an international cross-cultural method of counseling with the purpose of advancing individual expression among diverse populations. The projective feasibility of the House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) as a multicultural diagnostics tool targeted at Asian consumers was examined. Three auxiliary tests were added to the H-T-P procedure where 14 international students from Malaysia (n=11), China (n=2), and India (n=1) were asked to draw 1) a second person of the opposite gender, 2) the family home of origin, and 3) from memory, how they would draw at 5-years old. A combined contextual and descriptive approach was used to cross-tabulate indicators against variables such as personality, size, and placement markers. Five statistically significant indicators were identified.
Colleen Kunz: Container for the Soul
Container for the Soul is a thesis exploring the possibility of including spirituality with art therapy. Developmental processes contribute to the growth of spirituality as well as individualization. Religious writings through the ages stress" know thyself" first as a criteria for a growing relationship with God. The inward search for self and God can become mystical and creative as illustrated by Teresa of Avila and Julian of Norwich. The creative process in art therapy has this spiritual component. This theory is explored through the therapy processes that the writer has with one client and with her own therapist. Influences from different therapy theories contribute different aspects that affect these two therapeutic relationships. These influences and issues of transference and counter-transference are explored in their relationship to this therapeutic process in this thesis.
Victoria Laneri: Mentally Ill/Chemical Abuse: Grant proposal
DePaul Mental Health Services, Inc., is an outpatient facility with its principal offices at 855 West Main Street, Rochester, New York, is a not-for-profit, comprehensive mental health agency. Presently, outpatient and residential programs offer crisis intervention: continuing treatment: individual and group counseling; case management; psychoeducational and vocational treatment. DePaul is also a community resource, offering continuous consultation and education services to other agencies, and community groups.
In 1984, DePaul Mental Health Services became accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO).1 This commission closely evaluates all aspects of an agency's operation and has accredited fewer than five percent of community mental health agencies nation-wide. In addition, DePaul's programs are certified by the New York State Office of Mental Health.
Overall direction is provided by a twenty-three member board of directors comprised of religious, business and community leaders. The day-to-day operation and management is supervised by a Medical
Director, Dr. Odysseus Adamides and includes three hundred individuals including psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, therapists, counselors, art therapists, case managers, and administrators. 'Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO) is a national accreditation association privately funded by the federal government.
The Continuing Treatment Program utilizes milieu style therapy for clients suffering from chronic mental illness. Continuing Treatment utilizes a track system, which specifically addresses the needs of subpopulations within its facility. A tutored classroom for the mentally retarded population. A low stimulation environment for the geriatric population (Westsider's Program). Hearing impaired services for deaf clients. A track for the chronically mentally ill. Action Toward Employment Program Due to the diversity of the staff, and client needs, Continuing Treatment is able to respond to the specialized concerns of its total population. It is under this umbrella that the M.I.C.A. (mentally ill/chemical abuse) Program will originate. (see Appendix I)
Michelle Lecker-Saravanja: An Art Therapy Approach for an Acute Psychiatric Setting
This job proposal thesis was created to show the importance and significance of art therapy in a behavioral, medical setting. Many facilities offer a team approach, which may include a social worker, occupational therapist, and/or activities therapist. In this thesis, I will use Riverwoods a behavioral, medical setting to demonstrate how Art Therapy can be implemented into the program to become an essential part of the treatment team. Art therapy will be incorporated into the adolescent, geriatric, adult, and chemical dependency program highlighting the therapeutic value.
Lynette L. Lex: Art and Poetry Therapy
This thesis reviewed the literature pertaining to art and poetry therapy in relationship to the chemically dependent population. Specific art and poetry therapy techniques were explored, along with the subject of spirituality. Recurring symbols with the chemically dependent were listed. The combination of art and poetry therapy was discussed and case examples were given. In addition, the literature related to countertransference images and poetry was reviewed. Examples of this writer's personal countertransference using the combination of poetry and art were included.
Christie P. Linn: Adult Parentified Children and Interpersonal Relationships
This study used art work and in-depth interviews to examine interpersonal relationships in adult parentified children. This study uncovered themes in art work related to close personal relationships among participants. Findings from this study suggest that parentification strongly affects both behavioral and thought process in adult interpersonal relationships. Imprinted patterns and associations from relationships in childhood are then carried into adult interpersonal relationships. Both drawing analysis and interview responses showed connections between parentified childhood experiences and relationship variables of trust, self-esteem, communication, and self-image/self concept. Other themes emerged as well, such as views of a Higher Power, self-doubting, a concern for the future, and a fear of failure.
Stacy Longley: Can Creating Mandalas Increase Self-Awareness for Adults Recovering From a Mental Disorder
The intent and purpose of this study was to assess if creating mandalas increases self-awareness for adults recovering from a mood disorder. Although there is sufficient information in books and articles addressing how mandala activities increase self-awareness and promote healing, there is an insufficient amount of published research, case studies, and personal journeys that support this topic, especially with the mentally ill population. This study attempted to examine whether mandalas are an effective tool to use with the mentally ill population to build self-awareness, growth toward wholeness, individuation, and healing. Six participants voluntarily participated and were directed to create mandalas spontaneously for four two-hour sessions. By comparing a standardized self-determination scale, progress report, and journal entries throughout the study, creating mandalas appeared to have promising outcomes in increasing self-awareness in adults recovering from a mental disorder.
Rachel Lukaski: The Experiences of HIV-Positive Men in an Art Therapy Stress Management Group
What are the experiences of men living with HIV participating in an art therapy stress management (A TSM) group? This study attempted to gain knowledge of the experiences of HIV -positive men in an A TSM group as well as measure changes in stress appraisal before and after the A TSM group. Stress management has been implemented to increase self efficacy, reduce anxiety, and increase immune health for persons living with HIV/AIDS. In a group art therapy setting, social support can be found as well as new ways to express emotions and communicate effectively with others.
The study group met once a week for 90-minute sessions over the course of six weeks. The group consisted of ten men who had been infected with HIV for over ten years. The participants' self-reported stress appraisal decreased; the change in stress was not statistically different. However this may be due to a few factors; the participants reported low stress appraisal upon the pre-test and the sample size was small. The pre-test measures reflected low stress appraisal; however the men may have volunteered for the study to learn new coping strategies, continue to manage stress effectively, and to prepare for any future stressors. The research found that the participants focused on coping strategies, including social support, spirituality, increasing self-expression, and effective communication. The phenomenological research demonstrated that art therapy can provide valuable learning experiences, exemplifying how one may appraise stress, adapt accordingly, control one's actions, and master the situation. Art therapy stress management can allow persons living with HIV / AIDS to have a safe outlet to express stress, gain insight, and increase coping strategies outside the group setting.
Colleen Lynch: Art Therapy: An interdisciplinary collaboration at the Nazareth College Speech-Language Clinic
This thesis "Art Therapy an Interdisciplinary Collaboration at the Nazareth College Speech-Language Clinic (APHASIA) Chronic Aphasia: A Focus on a Men's Group" is based on the personal observations of Colleen Lynch. It contains an evaluation of the interdisciplinary collaborative research being conducted at the Nazareth College Speech Language Pathology Clinic (Aphasia). Dr. Shirley Szekeres initiated this new interdisciplinary research in January 2000. Dr. Ellen Horovitz, Director of the Art Therapy Department at Nazareth College was the first to install a graduate art therapy intern into this clinical environment. Initially this internship specifically dealt with providing art therapy to a Chronic Aphasia Men's Group on a once a week basis. This has expanded to accommodate a weekly women's group, and individual client sessions. This thesis specifically deals with the treatment plans and directives used at the clinic over the course of four semesters. The foundation Men's Group is the focus of this research. This group has had extended access (two years) to art therapy and an abundance of research material that has been elicited during that time. This research has established methods and protocols that elicit and communicate information about the psychosocial dynamics of the stroke survivor. This thesis outlines treatment strategies for new art therapy interns to implement that expand upon art therapy and art practice methods and techniques. This thesis discusses the interpersonal interactions of the clients, as well as ideas in how to support and guide clients and their families through the treatment process. In addition, this thesis investigates appropriate theoretical frameworks that could enhance overlap in terminology, definitions, and discourses between those disciplines.
Terese Manfredi: A Legacy of Survivors
This body of work will highlight some of the needs of children who are infected and affected by the my (human immunodeficiency virus) and/or by AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) and will explore common themes that are relevant to the population of these children. Currently, there are tremendous boundaries that surround children and their families who are infected/affected by HIV/AIDS. They are afflicted by fears, adjustments and alienation involving the diagnosis, the disease and how it was contracted. These families are also involved in the process of changing familial roles and responsibilities and making permanency plans for the future. Feelings of anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, neglect and rejection are heightened for children who live in families where my is present.
This thesis will emanate from this writer's experiences at Action For a Better Community in the Action Front Center, Rochester, NY, which provides ongoing services in support, education, crisis intervention and community development around the issue of HIV/AIDS. This writer through the language of poetry will chronicle events and encounters with clients. Poetry written by this writer will incorporate themes relevant to this population such as family, death, bereavement and recreating family. The notion of recreating family includes the changes in roles, guardianship issues and/or foster placements after a death of a parentis. A brief excerpt of client's history, identifying information and/or circumstances around the poems will be provided. Family of origin and names of clients will be changed due to confidentiality. The intent of this thesis project is to alleviate some of these social barriers by providing more knowledge about what children who are infected or affected with HIV/AIDS face. The aim of this thesis is to expose the universal needs of these children because of the barriers that have been built. It is hoped that the reader will explore the information of the client, the creative response of this writer, and empathize with the client's experience.
Kevin Markman: Case Study: Art therapy and sexual abuse with families in crisis
This paper addresses how art therapy can be used with the specific safety concern of sexual abuse. One premise is that all problems necessitating treatment are caused by clients not feeling safe. The ideas of crisis and safety are looked at and related to the treatment modality of art therapy. A conceptual framework of causes, signs to look for, general treatment recommendations, and how art therapy is best used with the specific safety concern of sexual abuse is developed. Two case examples of how art therapy has been used to address sexual abuse using the framework of crisis and safety as a guide is discussed. A comprehensive review of practical treatment options for special populations in crisis with sexual abuse is presented. The population intended for use of this theory will be clinicians as well as the general public.
Breanne Lea McDowell: Seeking the Authentic Self: The impact of nature vs. contemporary technocratic society communicated through artistic and written expression
Human beings are inherently connected to the earth. The impact of the natural environment on one's well being is documented throughout the literature of: ecopsychology, deep ecology, transpersonal psychology, cultural anthropology, as well as some traditional psychological theories. Even after reviewing the prominent literature in these field I wondered, what of the connection to one's genuine and authentic being? I feel truly connected to my pure self, and in turn my environment, through the experience of being involved with nature. The process of creating artwork around this state of being has been both insightful and meditative for me, which drove me to explore if this phenomenon exists in others. When one is truly connected, how do they express that artistically? In this exploratory study, six participants who have a strong connection through nature express their experiences through interviews, artistic, and written expressions. Participants also explored their experiences of feeling disconnected from their true self and their surroundings.
Beth McNamara: Art Therapy With the Chemically Addicted
Art therapy as a discipline has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations and has attracted much interest in the field of mental health. this paper introduces art therapy as a discipline as applied specifically to the addicted population. The history of art therapy is briefly reviewed, as well as its benefits as applied to the chemically dependent.
Examples are given to illustrate the use of art therapy as used with the addicted person, as nonverbal communication and symbolic expression of the unconscious, and as a means of breaking down barriers and defenses, which tends to be a main defense mechanism of the addicted personality.
Specific characteristics which make art therapy the best mode of therapy for this population are reviewed as well as unique applications of art therapy into an alcoholism treatment program. This paper introduces the basic concepts of art therapy application to the chemically addicted population.
Erin Montana-Larramendi: Are There Differences in an Individual’s Representation of Self When Drawn with and without Family Members Using the Draw Yourself as an Animal Directive?
This study investigated the differences in depictions of self when drawn with and without family in animal form. For this study, the researcher used a qualitative approach. Seventy-five participants were asked to create two drawings; one depicting themselves as an animal and one depicting themselves with their family as animals. Each participant worked on a clear table and had two 8x10 sheets of paper and a box of standard Crayola markers. The sessions lasted approximately 35 minutes.
The results of this study suggest that there are differences in how a person perceives themselves within and without their family. In general, this study found that people will portray many unique aspects of themselves and their family when they draw themselves and family members as animals. Included in these aspects are a large set of differences in the animal type, size, age and behavior. This study supports the idea that if art therapists ask people draw themselves and their families as animals, rather than as human figures, they may find different information in this assessment than in an assessment where the person is asked to draw human figures.
Judith Montello: A Birthday Story: Remembering birth parents literature review
This thesis will focus on helping children, adolescents, and adoptive parents (heretofore referred to as parents), and their families express thoughts about birth parents, personal identity, and grief and loss issues surrounding their adoptions. The treatise will hopefully enable positive discussions, providing a concrete means of expression surrounding identity and loss questions, as well as unresolved feelings. The life-long process of talking with one's child should begin the moment a child comes home.
The National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH), the North American Council on Adoptable Children (NACAC), American Adoption Congress (AAC), Children's Aid Society (CAS), researchers, therapists, and agencies have done many studies, workshops, panel discussions and conferences focusing on the grief and loss issues which occur in child and adolescent adoptees (Melina, 1989).
Adoption brings up many questions for young children. Later in A Birthday Story: Remembering Birth Parents childhood, adoption can be a source of emotional confusion and vulnerability during the already tumultuous time of adolescence. During the teen years, life experiences encountered are apt to force teenagers to deal with this vulnerability.
This work's purpose will be to make parents and children of all ages comfortable with discussing birth parents and therefore, be a viable means of assisting adolescent adoptees to better comprehend their own thoughts and emotions. The end product will hopefully ease this often troublesome time in the lives of children and their parents.
Johanna Morehouse: Graffiti Art Techniques in Conjunction with Art Therapy in the Treatment of Adolescents Hospitalized for Eating Disorders
This study looks at the evidence of the therapeutic benefits of graffiti art techniques with art therapy in the treatment of eating disordered adolescents in a hospital setting. This research consists of multiple case studies with hospitalized eating disorder patients. The pre and post-test Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC) was used to measure internal and external variables of control. It was hypothesized that internal locus of control would change over the course of treatment that included graffiti art therapy. Participants in the study were more able to follow treatment recommendations in the hospital setting when they were able to use graffiti art as a means of expression. Gender differences and length of hospital stay also affected the internality and externality locus of control scores during the course of treatment. In addition, the participants had less polarized thinking patterns on discharge; extreme responses to the pre-test items were not present in the posttest scores.
Pamala Mullen: Grandpa’s Magic Easel: A special gift to Jeremy
This story deals with the topic of childhood bereavement following the death of a loved one, and one child's process of self-healing through the creation of art. This story portrays a young boy who experiences the death of his grandfather, to whom he was very close. As the child grieves, he becomes progressively more saddened and withdrawn - unable to be reached by others. While helping his grandmother to clean out his grandparents' attic one day, the boy stumbles upon an easel which had belonged to his grandfather. His grandmother gives the child the easel as a special symbolic gift from his grandfather. Through the use of the easel and the creation of art, the boy journeys through the stages of childhood bereavement and ultimately heals himself, making peace with the loss of his beloved grandfather.
Barbara Murak: Memory Material: Recollection utilizing fabric as a trigger
This exploratory research project investigated the effects of using fabric swatches as memory triggers and for reminiscence of life stories with elderly adults. Three groups of elderly adults, aged 68-101, from an adult day services program, a nursing home, and a retirement home for nuns, participated in an activity called “Pass the Patch”. A variety of colored and textured fabrics were used to cue spontaneous responses, which were then coded as Descriptive Comment, Personal Memory, or Story Memory. All three groups were able to retrieve personal and story memories. Response data gathered indicated themes of life review of special occasions and the textiles used for those events, personal values, and changing times, and an element of curiosity and desire to connect to others of similar age in their community. The findings of this study will prove useful in developing art therapy fabric programs at senior citizen centers, nursing homes, hospitals, rehabilitation centers and for clients with dementia or Alzheimer’s Disease.
Rochelle Murray: The Making of a Quilt
This thesis resulted from my second year internship placement in the Graduate Art Therapy Program at Nazareth College. This placement was in an adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit at a local upstate New York hospital. Most of the clients were hospitalized due to suicidal ideation, gestures or attempts and their inability to contract for safety. The intent of this paper is to describe a collective quilt project I conducted with the patients on this unit. The Psychiatric unit and program, patient population, and Irvin Yalom's therapeutic factors of group therapy will be discussed. The process and goals of the quilt project will be explained and described in relation to these aforementioned components.
Jana L. Neal: Differences Between Adult and Child Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
This phenomenological study compared child and adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities using qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative data was obtained from a modified Kinetic Family Drawing art directive and post-drawing questionnaire. Quantitative data was obtained using an inventory which rated indicators of deviation from the norm within the drawings. Qualitative results suggested developmental differences between groups while quantitative results alluded to generational differences. This study covered a broad range of factors affecting siblings of individuals with DD. The results of this study may be used to examine more specific factors in future research.
Mary Nicholson: A Case Study: Art therapy with adolescent sex offenders
Increased public awareness of adolescent sex offenders and their crimes is the main emphasis of this thesis. Most research dealing with male sex offenders has focused on adult sex offenders and their victims. More recently however, research is beginning to show that a sizeable number of sex crimes are being committed by male, adolescent sex offenders. Research has shown, that deviant patterns of sexual behavior develop at an early age and if intercepted early enough, the deviant patterns and cycle can be interrupted (Gerber, 1994).
It is hoped, that by utilizing art therapy at various points in the treatment process, the young sex offender will better understand the emotional, cognitive and behavioral patterns that cause the offenses to occur. I will demonstrate, that by combining art therapy with a cognitive-behavioral model of treatment, new patterns of thought and behavior can be practiced and reinforced, thus intercepting the deviant patterns and interrupting the offending cycle.
Michelle Nicoletti: Breaking the Barriers for Adults with Developmental Delays: Innovations made with art therapy
This thesis will discuss the therapeutic process of art therapy with developmentally delayed adults. The history of rehabilitative services describes how the lack of interest for this population has affected their quality of care. The lack of research and art therapy for adults with DD is examined. Current research, from the past twenty years, explores the benefits of art therapy. This writer shares the experience of working for one year on an internship at an agency that is helping to break barriers for this adult population. Through the discussion of case studies practice and theories, the benefits of art therapy currently and for the future may improve the quality of life for these clients. Implications for the future delve into the therapeutic process of art therapy and how this will benefit the adult with DD.
Katherine Nolan: Differences in cultural bereavement
This qualitative study examines, through subject-related open-ended questions and art work, how the researcher and three international students' cultures handle the bereavement process. The researcher participated to allow a look into a western perspective of the bereavement process. Data was collected in the form of artistic inquiry and an open-ended questionnaire. The subjects' art response is presented, along with a review of their answers from the questionnaire, followed by a summary of the information gleaned from these. The results illustrated that a correlation could be seen, in some instances, between their art work and the found research discussed in the literature review. The results show differences between participants from several cultures who share a common religion.
Michelle Nolan: Art Studio: Everyone is welcome
The purpose of this thesis is to present a proposal for creating an extensive Art Therapy program within a small nursing home setting. The main issues addressed within this proposal are the benefits of art therapy for the residents, the importance of the treatment team, and the possibility of a grant to help get the program started. The program has been designed to be flexible in order to apply it to other nursing homes. It is the intent that if the program is a success in the initial home, then it will be expanded to other homes. Other considerations that are addressed are; space, supplies, and paper work that will be needed.
Karen Nykaza: The Trauma of Rape: An application of the healing power of art therapy
This paper will explore the ways in which art therapy and art techniques can help a rape victim begin and engage in the healing process. Experiences in art therapy seem to provide a special outlet for emotions that are difficult to process. This paper will review the research that has been done in this area. This writer will also attempt to look at the experience of rape from the perpetrator's point of view, and also touch on possible implications for the use of Art Therapy for women who experience post traumatic stress disorder and/or rape trauma syndrome as a result of being raped.
Robert O'Brien: Now and At the Hour of Their Death: Exploring the loss experiences of adults who were parentally bereaved
This research explores the experiences of adult survivors of adolescent parental bereavement as could be gleaned through narrative, attachment and researcher-designed parent loss interviews, and the art therapy directive, "Draw the moment of your parent's death." Methods were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the participants' experiences at the time of their parent's death, as well as the incident's long-term effects. Participants were 5 individuals who had lost a parent to death between the ages of 12 and 18, including the researcher. The results include a myriad of insights into the feeling worlds of adult survivors of adolescent bereavement, attachment patterns to their current relations, and thought processes surrounding the loss they experienced and its effect on their lives today. Finally, this research opens the door to further exploration of the usefulness of the proposed art directive as a process tool for the issues discovered.
Julie O'Connor: Inner Toad
Inner Toad is an in-depth look at self-exploration in the search for understanding self. In art therapy the Inner Toad can be used as a metaphor for the part of self that is ultimately responsible for the intake of food. The process of externalizing and labeling the "problem" can be empowering for clients.
Rosari O'Donnell: An Artistic Reflection
This culminating project proposes to explore my family of origin and personal development. Art and poetry are used to illustrate my personal journey while working with the chemical dependent population. The art and creative writing are expressed in an abstract/expressionist style. This abstract and expressionist style may represent images and thoughts which are closer to the unconscious. These unconscious images seem to stimulate personal growth and development. Through the art, I shall attempt to encourage the individual reader to conjure up personal thoughts and images. The included literature review offers a definition of alcoholism, and a brief discussion on the present situation faced by various populations. who are dealing with substance abuse.
Catherine A. Pavone: Comparing the Emotions of Infertile and Fertile Women Through a Qualitative Analysis of Their Artwork
The purpose of this study is to explore possible emotional differences between women who are infertile and women who are fertile and how these differences are represented through art. Infertility is defined as "the inability to conceive a pregnancy after one year of engaging in regular unprotected sexual intercourse," (Stanton, 1992, p. 390) and occurs in many different diagnosis's. This study compares the responses of infertile and fertile women to (1) psychological tests that address affect, self-esteem, and feelings of effectiveness and (2) artwork directives that address pregnancy, family, and feelings about being a woman. Both statistical and qualitative analyses are used to examine the results.
Cathy Payne: 100 Years of Echoes
Information will be presented on Alamo Elementary School and its population of Mexican Hispanic children. Reasons will be stated as to why the therapist chose sand playas therapy to work with the children. Research presented on art therapy and sand play therapy will also be discussed. As well, the author will look at the benefits of combining art therapy with sand therapy. Five cases will be presented along with family information and psychosocial background that will reflect similarities of each child's personality and significant sessions will be recorded. The therapist will offer impressions and interpretations of each child's progress and outcome.
Patricia Pelligrino: Adolescents Walking with Addictions
This study tested the hypothesis that phototherapy can increase self-esteem and decrease substance abuse among adolescents. The sample was derived from a group of adolescents admitted to an outpatient drug and alcohol treatment program. Thirty percent of the adolescents are females ranging in age 14 to 17. Seventy percent are males. Phototherapy was introduced as part of the adolescents' treatment plan that includes Art Therapy. Weekly toxins were administered to measure time of abstinence and decrease/increase use of drugs and/or alcohol.
Jill Penaloza: Art Therapy: Reducing aggressive behaviors in learning disabled male adolescents
This thesis, presented as a grant proposal, requests funding for a four-year pilot project which would provide preventive art therapy services to 96 aggressive learning disabled male adolescents identified as being at high-risk for entering the criminal justice system.
Kristin Penny: Quilting in the Life of the Frontier Woman: Connections to women quilters of today
The following study reviews quilting in the life of the Pioneer woman and contains profiles of six modem day quilters. The study compares the experiences and connections of both past and present day quilters. Pioneer women used quilting as a medium of self-expression as do present day women. Differences that emerged were the life circumstances and ability to make life choices. Quilting for the Pioneer women was a part of their way of life. For the modem day, women quilting are a chosen pastime. There is also evidence shown regarding the healing properties of quilting and how that effects the individual quilter.
Darcy Perotto: The Influence of Multiple Risks on Inner City Children
Children growing up in the inner city are often living their lives among environmental and biological risks. Children may experience poverty, abuse, domestic violence, and/or community violence. Evidence shows that as the number of risk factors a child has increases, the likelihood that he or she is negatively impacted also rises. Such children are often termed "at-risk" and have a poor prognosis.
This thesis will explore many of the biological and environmental risk factors children face today. It will also explore how such risk factors impact a child's life. Art therapy and the ways in which it can be used with "at-risk" toddlers will also be explored.
Kristine Pink: Brush, Chisel, Hammer: Building a sense of self through alternative pathways with adolescent males
This paper and its accompanying video documentary explore the creative engagements of adolescent students at BOCES Rush Campus, NY, a unique alternative school setting for at-risk youth with special educational needs, ages twelve through nineteen. Specifically focusing on those students attending elective activities both clinical and academic, in the art therapy studio, carpentry, forge, and freestyle rapping, this paper takes a philosophical look at how these adolescents use traditional and nontraditional expressive arts therapy media as a means of personal expression and self-exploration. In understanding the etiology of at-risk youth behaviors, the expressive arts therapist can more effectively assist them in developing greater sense of self-awareness.
This paper also explores how the expansion of arts therapy approaches with at-risk youth can increase the efficacy of therapeutic treatment in regards to building a stronger sense of self. This work investigates how the creative process within the above forums enhances the ability of the youth to gain a healthier sense of identity through a sense of mastery and personal expression, as well as acting as a cathartic channel for their underlying depression and resulting aggressive behaviors. The significance of both the physical and philosophical environments at BOCES Rush Campus is also examined as to their influence on the healing process of these troubled youth. This holistic approach for growth is a significant means of providing a truly therapeutic setting as a catalyst for change.
Andrea Pistone: Grief/Loss Issues with Adults having Developmental Disabilities
This thesis focuses on adults with developmental disabilities, who used art therapy to express their grief and/or loss issues. People that are not developmentally disabled have many outlets to release grief Enclosed is a literature review that provides information, on art therapy, as well as other healing techniques for grief and or loss issues. Three case studies will illustrate the significance and severity of loss with developmentally disabled adults. The intent of this paper is to inform readers, how art therapy can serve as an outlet to release feelings and emotions of grief/loss issues, in a day treatment setting.
Tamah Popiak: Up to This Point and Beyond
The purpose of this composition is to provide a vast spectrum of readers with new insight towards viewing alcoholism; those affected by it, and art therapy. Specifically, this work is an in-depth journey through the author's experience of growing up as a child of an alcoholic and coping with adulthood. Notable research and data, along with the author's past memories will be combined to convey a sense of understanding and acknowledgment of alcoholism and its effects on family. Along with data and personal experiences, art therapy will be introduced and explained as a creative means to cope with issues centered upon familial alcoholism.
Jessie A. Pritting: The Effects of Art Therapy and Horticultural Therapy Tasks on Academic Stress
This thesis tests the hypothesis that horticultural based tasks can enhance the effectiveness of art therapy techniques while decreasing the academic stress in college participants. This study presents and discusses the artistic responses of nine graduate student participants who were randomly divided into three groups that receive various group conditions. Some participants received art therapy independently (Group I) while other participants received a combination of art therapy coupled with horticulture tasks, either before (Group 2) or after (Group 3) the art directives. All participants were asked to complete (1) a demographic questionnaire, (2) a pre and post academic stress questionnaire and (3) create two pieces of artwork based upon directives that addressed academic stress. This pilot study recorded the verbal and nonverbal responses of the participants while they completed the two assigned art directives and participated in the assigned horticulture tasks. Both statistical and quantitative analyses were used to examine the data collected. Possibilities for future research and limitations in the study are also discussed. As this study is largely exploratory in design, its intent is to generate interest in this topic and inspire future research.
Lesley Randall: Self Concept Art Therapy Assessment (SCATA)
The purpose of this study is to propose a Self Concept Art Therapy Assessment as a means to bypass defenses and assess self esteem. The development of the assessment is based on a multidimensional model of self concept and up-to-date interpretations of projective drawings. This assessment was administered to foster care youth ages 13-17 years old, living in foster homes and a residential facility. The findings indicate that the S. CA. I.A. is valid as it is significantly correlated to a written self esteem measure, and was found reliable when it was administered again four months after the initial assessment.
Jacquelyn M. Rease: Old Souls: Nurturing the selves of the aging population
This work is the result of work with elders, research on aging, and the nagging feeling that elders in our society are undervalued and for the most part ignored. It is an interactive art therapy journal and workbook addressing the developmental needs of the aging population. Individuals could use the materials independently. Clinicians might also choose to incorporate the journal into work with this population. The journal will address topics specific to the aging population, inviting thought and exploration about issues relating to this age group. The work will be interactive in that instead of simply reading about the topic, the reader will be asked to complete written and art tasks related to the stated issue. It is my hope that this work will create a format in which to explore and embrace the self and the process of aging.
This journal is your own personal space. Use it to explore your feelings, thoughts, dreams, aspirations, or any other part of yourself that you feel motivated to examine. There is no right or wrong way to do this journal. Anything that you create is an expression of yourself, and that is enough. You do not need to have any prior creative or artistic experience in order to use this book. As you embark on this journey, I ask that you be patient with yourself. Simply create for the beauty of creating. In saying this, I mean that it is not important whether or not your creation is considered to be beautiful. Maybe it is, and maybe it isn't. What I ask is that you simply enjoy creating, and expressing yourself without judgment of what you are creating. Sometimes in creative work it is easy to be wrapped up in self-conscious judgments concerning what we are creating. I ask that you try to shut off your inner critic, and simply enjoy the process of engaging in a creative endeavor. Through the course of this work you might learn more about yourself. I urge you to simply approach this process with an open mind, and a willing spirit. This book is for you and about you. You make the rules. If any of activity doesn't appeal to you, or you have a different idea of how to approach it, then follow your own instincts. If you have a friend that might be interested in also creating with this book, ask him or her to join you. This book can provide topics to discuss with your companion as you both work on it. If this book stimulates any overwhelming feelings, remember that it is always okay to seek professional help from a qualified mental health professional. This is a book that can also be used with the guidance of a counselor, and discussed in sessions. Remember that this workbook is about nurturing the self, so take time to enjoy this process.
Kathleen S. W. Reid: An Existential Affair: The marriage of art therapy and narrative therapy
This article explores the concepts behind Art Therapy and Narrative Therapy, and the elements that they share, that make the two techniques a successful team. The essence of Art Therapy is to combine the language of art and the healing of therapy, giving individuals the opportunity to externalize and explore issues within the self through the creative arts. Narrative Therapy attempts to have a person externalize concerns in an objective, impersonal manner, allowing the individual freedom to take a less negative and blaming approach to an issue. Existential Theory, the concept of using metaphors in therapy and suggested activities that use both Art and Narrative therapy are discussed; this includes Poetry writing, Self Characterization, Masks, Puppets, and Photo therapy.
Leslie Reid: Preliminary Research into the Use of a Brief Psychodynamic Approach to Art Therapy with Substance Abuse Disorder
Substance abuse and dependency continue to be a major health and economic problem. Researchers have developed several promising approaches to the treatment of addiction. However, it seems that there is a great need for studies exploring the use of art within a treatment program. This study does just that, in exploring the use of a psychodynamic approach to art therapy with a substance abuse population. Through the participant’s art expression of what life is like before addiction, during addiction, and what one would like life to be like after addiction; one can see the specific benefits identified by the participants which include, self-knowledge, and the ability to clearly identify specific personal issues contributing to the etiology of the addiction.
Ingrid Reuschle: Mirror Walking: The art of reflective imagery
This thesis suggests the mirror as an archetypal image serving as a metaphor for art therapy. With Jungian and post-Jungian theory underpinnings, it intends to weave streams of thought toward an understanding of the reflective process and its function in psychological healing. Six myths and fairy tales that incorporate mirror imagery, followed by poetic and visual responses, are juxtaposed within a textual discourse of the reflective idea. Discussion includes exploration of the therapeutic mirror in the context of creativity, collective experience, its application in art therapy, and the qualitative nature of reflection itself. Overall, this qualitative awareness is correlated with the psychological dynamic of human experience.
Elizabeth D. Rhodes: The Hero Journey: Archetypal art psychotherapy and the search for meaning
This paper explores the history of archetypes and myth in psychotherapy practice and specifically creative arts therapy. Using Sigmund Freud and C.G. Jung as examples of psychiatrists pioneering the use of archetypes and myths in treatment, this qualitative study follows the use of what is termed herein as ‘archetypal art psychotherapy’ through the history of modern Western psychology, popular culture and creative arts therapy practices. Specific interventions implemented by mental health practitioners are reviewed and assessed for their usefulness in incorporating myth and archetype into treatment. Two client population are discussed for their appropriateness of use with the interventions related to this method. Recommendations for future research are offered based on the literature review and implementation observations.
Julie Riley: Cross-Cultural Art Therapy in Tanzania, Africa: Art and cognitive impairment
A qualitative, ethnographic case study of a cognitively impaired/developmentally arrested adolescent male was conducted during a cross-cultural art therapy internship in Tanzania, Africa. Throughout the three-week internship, art therapy was introduced and implemented among a population of approximately 25 adolescents of varying ages and genders. Within the context of the larger internship, artwork, observations and interactions, daily process notes were collected as data. This data was analyzed through a developmental perspective in comparison with detainees in a around the same age. The case study documents how art utilized in a cross-cultural setting provided insight into possible intellectual impairment of a specific detainee; thematic results included behavioral concerns, cognitive limitations, relationship development, artistic process, and creative development.
Stacey L. Rowe: Read It and Weep
This thesis incorporates the author's experience with her mother's illness as well as research on others whose parents have died of cancer. The emphasis is on illness and death, and the use of art therapy as a healing process for the author. The author discusses how art therapy can be utilized with others in similar circumstances. The thesis includes: grieving the mother/daughter relationship, research on death and dying, art therapy with the aged in a nursing home environment, the support system of the dying and bereaved, and the healing process through art. Aside from the author's personal loss, the death of elderly clients is described through case studies and artwork. This raises the topic of the therapist dealing with termination in its most pure and final state. The quality of life for aged and ill is encouraged, as well as the quality of life for survivors, through creative therapy techniques.
Amy Melaine Ruddy: Working Hands, Open Hearts: Joining art and wilderness therapy interventions for a creative wilderness therapy program
When we venture into the depths of the woods and mountains something changes within us. One becomes inspired to expand awareness to the land, which will then lead to an internal awareness. Through experientials, daily communal living, and meditative grace, one can simplify thoughts and concerns to a bare minimum. Removed from the distractions of daily life one is able to sense what is truly important, the heart-song. Art enriches the process of self-awareness allowing one to stay with the metaphors of nature while creating a piece. Each creation giving shape and color to the sensual and internal awareness that develops when one is surrounded by life and its crucial cycles; both celebratory and painful. The thesis shares the value of moving art therapy into the wilderness; allowing for experiences that are universal and intimate at the same time. A proposed program based on a union of art therapy, wilderness therapy, and ecopsychology outlines my goals for three populations in particular: women, girls, and people with developmental disabilities.
Jeffrey M. Schreier: An Art-Based Approach on Developing an Archetypal Consciousness
This explorative research project looks into the workings of the inner imaginative psyche within the framework and principles governed by archetypal psychology. Principles of archetypal psychology are used in working with images spontaneously produced by this writer. This project embraces the philosophical, mysterious, and imaginal side of the creative art therapies.
The nature of the archetypal approach requires one to always refer back to the image itself. It is a process of "not knowing," which allows for the potential of expanding one's awareness from the personalistic and rational realm into the realm of imagination and psyche. It is not my intention to seek an answer, but to work at deepening my creative experience and understanding through the process of "sticking with the image," through dialogue, and being present with the image. The goal is making
the image more psychological, more "soulful."
The therapeutic benefit is the potentiality of developing new attitudes, outlooks, and insights toward life. The archetypal approach is perceived as having a ritualistic reverential eye that appreciates the importance of imagery, the individual as well as universal, mystery, inner and outer experience, and multiplicity. This study supports and validates the importance of developing an archetypal consciousness, offers legitimate arguments for the necessity of perceiving images on their own terms, and perceiving images as manifestations of the autonomous psyche. This is done through self-analysis and art-based research, which becomes a process of expanding personal insights into the collective realm.
Cathy A. Schwegler: Emily, Betty, Art and Chart: A book for children diagnosed as having a chronic illness
Children who are diagnosed as having a chronic illness often face many challenges. Books allow children to identify with and react to an experience that is partly unfamiliar to them in a safe and supportive environment. The primary goal of this thesis was to examine the effect my book titled Emily, Rettie, Art and Chart has when combined with art activities based in narrative theory and art therapy in reducing anxiety and fears relative to the hospital setting and/or illness in young children. A young girl aged 3 years and 10 months that had been diagnosed as having a chronic illness was read the book and lead to do art activities based in narrative theory to encourage creative expression. It is predicted that assisting chronically ill children in becoming more familiar with the hospital setting and allowing for creative expression of feelings may result in the reduction of anxiety and fears resulting from their illness.
Sharon Scott: Maggie and the “L” Word
This is a book about courage, about struggle, and about the pain created by cultural homophobia. It is written for children and adults who are trying to deal with a mother's decision to "come out of the closet." Acceptance of this new aspect of a person can be a difficult journey for everyone involved - especially a child. The book examines how one child uses the modality of art therapy for self-exploration and self-expression. The story addresses the difficult emotions that surface as she travels through the uncharted territory of her parents' divorce, the reaction of family and friends to her mother's disclosure, and her fears about the response of her friends if they find out that her mother is a lesbian. The events presented are drawn from the experiences of women and children who have made this journey. It speaks to the many challenges that have occurred in their mutual lives, and celebrates the bond of love that has survived and grown stronger because of diversity.
Yael Shatz: A Phenomenological Analysis of Cultural Identity: Cultural and transitional concerns in Israeli immigrants
Focusing on the effect of cultural characteristics and competencies, multicultural counseling has developed as an important sub-field in the counseling profession in recent decades. Despite the many contributions that this paradigm has offered to counselors, limited attention has been given to the subjective experiences of clients from different cultures. This study explores how Israeli immigrants perceive and experience their identity as they make the transition to living in the United States. Using a phenomenological research and counseling framework, this study presents and discusses artworks and interviews of seven Israeli immigrants. The major elements revealed and analyzed in this project include conflicting cultural values, stages in the culture shock process, and acculturation strategies. The research underscores the advantages of using art therapy with clients from different cultures to facilitate individual expression and suggests the potential for improving therapist-client communication. Furthermore, this project also discusses the ability of the phenomenological perspective to enhance the client's expression and therapist's self-awareness, knowledge, and methods of intervention.
Roberta Shoemaker: Fashion Therapy: A coloring book for therapists
This thesis is presented as a coloring book for therapists. It contains ten panels which parody disorders that can present themselves in clients and could potentially be treated through the fictitious "fashion therapy." The disorders, their symptoms, the psychological makeup of the client, and the goals for treatment have been considered with each prescription which fashion therapy makes for the treatment of the individual clients. The tenacity of this fictitious therapy to get a foot hold in popular culture is represented through the incorporation of other, already established therapies (occupational therapy, physical therapy, and art therapy) into its methods.
This coloring book has basically two intentions:- it is meant as a commentary on all the different therapies that have come and gone and those that have only briefly visited us. It is also meant to bring humor (and possibly some snickers) to therapists who, as they should, take very seriously their clients and the concerns the clients bring to the therapy sessions, while allowing for humorous relief once in a while. Enjoy!
Emily B. Shutes: A Case Study: Art therapy with adolescent sex offenders
The focus of this paper is to combine a literature review with an independent case study and analysis of an adolescent diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder. Through the use of the art materials, the client is able to convey his experiences and how he perceives his environment. Significant sessions outline the client's struggle to remain in control of impulses, and defend against ego deterioration.
Rachel N. Sikorski: Fine Art as Stimulus: Can viewing art inspire creativity and facilitate emotional expression?
The therapeutic benefit of viewing fine art imagery during individual art therapy with emotionally disturbed adolescents in a day school treatment program is explored. A ten-week qualitative research study was conducted during which time adolescent participants were able to (1) view a different fine art image and (2) respond to what was seen and discussed through art making. Participants were encouraged to share any feelings and personal reactions to both viewing and making art, and were interviewed about the overall experience. The results of this study indicate that using fine art imagery as a stimulus during art therapy can facilitate emotional expression and serve as creative inspiration for adolescent clients. The technique also encourages communication of thoughts and ideas; validates individual interests and personalities, as well as increases confidence and self-esteem.
Debra Siracuse: High Falls Horses on Parade
It was January before my May graduation from the Art Therapy Master's Program, and I was feeling somewhat ambivalent about my rather unformulated thesis project. I was sitting in class listening to Dr. Ellen Horovitz talk enthusiastically about her design on a life-sized fiberglass horse she was working on for the "Horses on Parade" community fund raising art project. The "Horses on Parade" campaign was the creation of the Dixon-Schwab Advertising Company in conjunction with the High Falls Brewing Company, scheduled to take place in the city of Rochester during the months of May to August 2001. This event would make 150 life-size fiberglass horses available for business sponsorship. Businesses then would find an artist to design (decorate) the horse for community display and eventual auction. Money raised by the sponsorship and sale of the horses would be distributed to charitable organizations. As Dr. Horovitz spoke about the "Horses on Parade", I knew at that moment that I wanted to change my thesis. I had to get a horse to design that would represent my internship and the artwork created by the participants of the "in VISION" art therapy program.
Donna J. Skelton: Art Therapy and the Medical Patient
Medical art therapy is not new. It began several decades ago and flourishes today amongst some of the brightest and most skilled therapists and medical clinicians, at some of the finest hospitals. The effects that medical interventions, hospital stays, and traumatic incidents have on patients may vary due to the patient's premorbid emotional and psychological status and his or her own personal perspectives. Art therapy has been successfully used in the in-patient setting with a broad range of patients. The intent of this booklet is two-fold. Its first intention is to inform clinicians who work in a medically based setting about the benefits of an adjunctively applied therapeutic treatment plan using art therapy and traditional treatments of the treatment team. It includes information regarding billing and the benefits, efficacy, and special considerations of using art therapy with medical patients. It provides an outline of the roles and responsibilities of the art therapist. It defines the art therapist as a clinician and mental health professional under the most recent New York State Office Of Mental Health Regulations revision. Its second intent is to propose that art therapy be used adjunctively as part of the medical patient's therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plan, as a holistic healing process of the mind and the body. This may increase the success rate of reentry into society, home, and other rehabilitative and long-term placements. It may also help to decrease the mortality rate and the rate of emotional and psychological problems that may result from the medical patient's experience. It may provide the patient with an opportunity to express his or her feelings and emotional conflicts through the use of art materials as well as provide a verbal outlet for psychotherapy when traditional therapy may fail, prove difficult, or even impossible.
Meredith Snow: Art Therapy in a Battered Women’s Shelter
This paper is intended to be an educational/informational discussion regarding art therapy with women and children in a domestic violence shelter. It is based on my experience as an art therapy intern at Alternatives for Battered Women (ABW). It includes a physical description of the shelter, as well as clinical data gathered at the site. The research consists of current literature, as well as case study information. The study took place over a four-month period of time. The paper discusses the similarity in personality and artwork among children from violent homes. One of the main goals of art therapy is to create a safe space for the residents. It also provides a secure place for children to experience and contain their feelings. Finally, this paper includes artwork that reflects some issues in counter transference that this art therapist encountered.
Mary Solomon: The Journey Home
Instead of focusing one's attention on whether or not foster care is beneficial or detrimental to a child, we need to accept the fact that foster care is a reality, as well as a necessary resource that provides safety and support to the child while his/her family is in crisis. The journey home is not always a smooth ride and may take years before parent and children are ready for reunification. Unfortunately, reunification with the biological family is not always in the best interest of the child so the definition of home should be clearly defined. One definition, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, is an environment offering security and happiness (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982, p.618). I would like to think of home as a state of mind where one can find happiness, peace and security. The inner lives of these foster children are not easily accessible. It is not enough to be placed in foster care. Many of these children have led traumatic lives, which leave them with more to deal with then just attachment, separation and loss issues. Sexual abuse, repressed memories, physical violence and abandonment issues are just some of the issues that some foster children begin to touch during their foster care stay. Throughout the journey home, it is beneficial for children to have means of expression to explore, release and rework many of the conflicts and feelings that they are experiencing. Art therapy can provide an outlet for these emotions providing the child with room to grow, learn and journey toward home. What is truly amazing is the resilience and courage that these young people develop in order to succeed in life.
Stephanie Somppi: The Superhero Drawing Series: An art therapy assessment tool
The Superhero Drawing Series proposes to access the unconscious level of the drawer's self; their light and dark aspects, and internal struggle between these dynamics. These hypotheses are supported in Jungian theory. For the first drawing, the participant is asked to draw to their own image of a superhero/heroine. The second drawing requires the depiction of the antithesis of the first, or the "villain or villainess". The final directive of the series is to "draw the interaction between the two figures". The Superhero Drawing series was evaluated for the presence of 30 Graphic Factors and results were correlated with measures from the CASSIL (1997). Participants were nineteen male and female adolescents from Buffalo and Rochester area school districts.
Stella Stepney: Introducing Art Therapy Into an Alternative Learning Environment for Adolescents
This thesis represents the research and implementation of art therapy into an alternative learning environment for adolescents. Adolescence is the bridge that spans the developmental period between childhood and adulthood. This period is characterized by cognitive, social and emotional challenges. In addition to these normative developmental challenges, adolescents who are referred to alternative learning environments are considered to be at-risk students with the potential for displaying academic, behavioral and social problems.
Researchers have isolated six factors that describe the attitudes and personality characteristics of at-risk students who have been placed in alternative learning environments. The factors that have been identified include (1) defensiveness and hopelessness, (2) attention seeking, (3) antisocial disorders, (4) conduct disorders, (5) interpersonal problems, and (6) family relationship problems. New developments in cognitive science are uncovering the mysteries of emotion and these findings have much to teach about how students do and do not learn. Emotion is important in education because emotion drives attention, which in turn drives learning and memory.
Public Law 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975), in its original form identified art therapy as a viable service that might benefit a child who required special education. Public Law 94-142 made it possible for school systems to allocate monies to help fund art therapy. This law is now known as The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA '97). IDEA '97 mandates that school systems create programs for children who have special problems. In 1986, the American Art therapy Association (AA T A) published a monograph entitled, "Art Therapy in the Schools: A Position Paper of the American Art Therapy Association." In discussing target populations in the monograph, AA T A expanded the scope to include children who are not identified as handicapped, but who may experience difficulty in school as a result of social or emotional problems. Art therapy and public school education can be a successful partnership. Together they can provide the tools with which to lead students to self-expression and ultimately into cognitive, social and emotional growth.
Charles D. Stinson: A Journey Home: Kara’s Australian walkabout
This children's story is meant to be a collaborative experience between a child and an adult, whether it be a mental health practitioner or a caregiver. The child should only use the booklet that has the pictures that accompany the storyline, while the adult has only the words. There are prompts in the text of the story for the reader to cue the child as to when to advance a page. The text is complicated and meaningful, written at a higher reading level than most children of foster care age have mastered. The text is also only a guideline, meant to be subtly altered to fit a child's particular situation. Younger children may need the story to be much shorter than it is, while older children may enjoy the words as much as the pictures. The illustrations are intentionally not numbered to allow for some flexibility in the story line. The more relevant the story and characters can be to a child the more valuable this book becomes. The main goal is to communicate to the child the message that multiple foster care homes is both natural and accepted, not a sign that the child is in some way unfit to be a part of a healthy family. Have fun, be creative, and transport the child to the land of Kara the kangaroo.
Amy E. Stratton: Art Ventures
Art, the character of the book, is a fictitious hero who uses his imagination and the stroke of his pencil to solve his dilemmas. Art ventures through a journey in life, being active in the familiar routines and problems of other children. He has a unique characteristic that allows him to erase and redraw himself. Art's goal is to show children how you can use drawing to express yourself (literally).
The concept of this book is inspired by the theory of art therapy. In short, art therapy supports art as a therapeutic process by supporting the ego, fostering a sense of identity, and promoting maturation. Schachtel (1954) wrote, 'The main motivation at the root of creative experience is man's need to relate to the world around him". "Art Ventures" creatively tries to portray this idea to children and adults also. Using a pencil, Art the character tries to relate to the world around him as his feelings take on visual form.
Art Therapy is a professional field consisting of experienced clinicians with guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association as well as the American Art Therapy Association.
Each "Art Ventures" book is accompanied by a blank journal and a pencil in hopes that its readers will be inspired to express themselves through their art.
Michele A. Strazzeri: Art Therapy In a School System
Art therapy within a school system is still relatively new. There exists few full-time art therapy programs in the schools, such as the exemplary art therapy program in the Dade County school district in Florida initiated by art therapist Janet Bush. Many times the school art educator will have an art therapy degree and will perform a dual role as art teacher and art therapist. Art therapy usually targets the school's special needs or special education population, which may include children with learning disabilities, emotional disorders and physical impairments. Individual and group art therapy sessions can be utilized to work with the above mentioned populations. This booklet was created to try to clarify these issues and inform school administrators and faculty of the great possibilities and strengths of an art therapy program within a school system.
Robert Swierczek: The Effects of Music and Art Making on the Mood of an Undergraduate Sample
This pilot study examined the mood altering effect music has during art making. Two undergraduate classes at Nazareth College took part in this study. A multi-ethnic nursing class, composed of various ages from young adult to middle adult, served as the experimental group, and an introductory art therapy class, composed of Caucasian young adults, served as the control. They both created art during three sessions, with the experimental group hearing one different piece of music each session. The music played was: a Hindu spiritual mantra, an electronic ambient piece, and a Mozart piano sonata. Both the Hindu mantra and Mozart sonata were shown to improve the participants’ mood during art making. Their mood was assessed using the Brief Mood Introspection Scale ([BMIS], Mayer & Gaschke, 1988).
Julie Szarowski-Cox: Art Therapy and Prevention: Charting a course toward utilizing art therapy in the prevention of sub
Youth have been initiating substance use at increasingly earlier ages. As a result, effective primary prevention programming should occur prior to the age of eleven. Research indicates that it is far more difficult to rehabilitate chemically dependent individuals than it is to prevent substance abuse from occurring.
Traditionally, art therapy has been associated with treatment; limited research is available exploring the relationship between art therapy and prevention. This thesis traces the history of prevention, the etiology of addiction, risk and resilience factors and seeks to create connections between available literature and art therapy as a prevention technique. To provide additional insight into the research, the author intersperses her personal experiences of growing up in an alcoholic family system and her own struggles with substance abuse throughout the text.
Peter Teall: Applications of Group Art Therapy to a Short-Term Psychiatric Unit
This paper explores the role of group art therapy in treating chronic, mentally ill adults, on a short-term, inpatient, psychiatric unit. Unlike traditional art therapy, short-term work requires more modest goals. This is evident in the Creative Expression Group on the unit, in which its primary purpose is to "reinforce modulation of affect" while the "emphasis is on shoring up ego strengths, not on revealing or uncovering affects needing long term work". There is a review of practices in leading brief art therapy groups and their theoretical antecedents. Observations on group art therapy sessions are presented, which support and sometimes challenge concepts raised in the literature review. Observations are made on the effect these groups have on patients and the milieu. Recommendations based on the literature and group observations are offered.
Heather Templeton: Portraits in Bereavement: Personal reflections as related to the grief and mourning journeys of three mothers
This culminating project takes a close look at the author's reflections of the creative process in the grief and mourning journeys of three mothers. The author attempts to capture the essence of each deceased loved one through fine art portraiture and an interview with family members. She begins by relating her own grief journey over the death of her grandfather. She explains her attempts to recreate a part of him through portraiture and how this brought her down a path of unresolved questions, feelings, and memories relating to his death. The author also references a bereavement website which utilizes portraiture along with creating commemorative sites, bereavement resources, daily reflections, and prayers, all with an attempt to provide families with comfort and solace during and after the death of a loved one.
Sarah Thomas: Issues of Brain Injury and Recovery
This piece of literature presents an emotional journey in recovering from a brain injury. This paper includes a comprehensive study of the brain and its functions and impairments. Art therapy activities are suggested for different types of brain injuries. An overview of local and state services are given.
Jennifer M. VandenBosch: Bereaved by Uxoricide
"Stories have to be told or they die, and when they die, we can't remember who we are or why we are here."
-Sue Monk Kidd The Secrete Life of Bees
The proposed thesis, 'Bereaved by Uxoricide', will explore the current literature on family homicide (uxoricide), trauma, traumatic bereavement, and "restorative retelling" (Rynearson, 2001). The information from this literature review will be employed in the investigation of my own story connected to the aforementioned topics. Theoretical underpinnings of narrative therapy, art therapy, and phototherapy will facilitate the self-authoring of my story. Following the literature review is a descriptive account of my progression in reclaiming the story of my mother's death and the visual narrative that resulted. To conclude, I will offer clinical applications derived from the process and implications for future research. The artwork will be formally displayed to underscore the importance of the thesis, and in addition, to have others provide witness to my retelling. This investigation will increase my own capacity for empathy, as well as reveal practical techniques to use with clients. Furthermore, it will be a self-affirming process that will increase my efficacy as a therapist and as a person.
Jessica Vanhouten: The Effects of Art Therapy in Reducing Stress on Prison Employees
On the basis of previous research, prison employees are predicted to have high levels of stress, resulting in things like high turnover rates, frequent sick leaves, burnout, premature retirement, and stressed familial relations. Art therapy has been found to be an effective outlet for aggression, anxiety, and stress. Over a course of six sessions, 8 participants completed 6 different art therapy exercises assessing stress, all were employees at a local minimum-security prison. A questionnaire evaluating and assessing change was given at the last session assessing stress levels, and other personal goals that were met through the group. The results concluded that the art therapy sessions were successful in reducing the stress levels of the subjects, as well as giving the subjects an overall understanding about how to identify and decrease stress.
Meredith S. Wade: Enhancing Quality of Life, Communication and Self-Expression Through the Art Making Process: A case study of a woman with Huntington’s disease
A case study of a woman who has a diagnosis of Huntington' s disease is presented in this paper. This qualitative study uses art work and different art mediums to improve the quality of life and explore new avenues of communication for this research participant. Four different art mediums are investigated including collage, painting, printmaking, and three dimensional medium. This participant met four times over a two month period with an art therapist for a one-hour session that took place at the nursing home where she resides. Along with working in four different art mediums, this woman was able to express herself through her art and communicate with this writer about her past experiences before her diagnosis. Additional quantitative or longitudinal research should be developed on how art therapy can impact communication and psychological well-being of individuals diagnosed with Huntington's disease.
Carla Watkins: Nonverbal Manifestations of Childhood Sexual Abuse
This paper defines normal latency development and reviews current literature on the manifestation of sexually abusive experiences during latency, the family role, and therapeutic interventions. A case vignette is included to illustrate how art therapy can be the treatment of choice for children who have been sexually abused. Photographs of the work are included.
Leslie Werlin: Buried Layers, Woven Threads
This poem deals with the painful feelings that are connected to sexual abuse. The imagery relates to how one child experienced and processed her pain through art materials and the support which was provided by a relationship developed with the art therapist. The poem portrays an adolescent girl who endures an incestuous relationship with her father. The child experiences the traumatic events in dreams. Her conscious memory provides comfort by means of escape and dissociation. She is however, left with isolation, loneliness, and an unexplainable sense of fear. As a result of the acceptance and understanding developed in therapy, the girl learns to trust and begins to share her feelings. Accompanied by the nurturing presence of her therapist, she gathers strength to travel to the depths of her pain. Together, they embark on a journey of self discovery and healing.
Lori A. West: Creativity & Epilepsy: A clinical & experiential exploration
Certain forms of epilepsy may predispose an individual to various facets of creative thinking such as sensitivity to the environment, flexibility, and the ability to observe connections or make uncommon associations. This may cause people to convert these intense feelings into works of art. One healthy consequence of living with epilepsy may be an increase or alteration in artistic expression. Research suggests that individuals who suffer from epileptic seizures often find the experience of a seizure expressed through their artwork, which may manifest in a detailed, expressive, intense, emotionally charged style. Epilepsy is a condition that may alter the way in which one view's their environment and inner experiences. Those experiences may alter the way in which an individual expresses themselves through works of art. Over time the epileptic's emotional life may become enhanced and the amount of artwork produced may increase. Throughout this thesis project, images are presented that the artist feels are related to both the seizure experience and the psychosis that may result from seizures formed in the temporal lobe(s). This paper outlines research relating to epilepsy and creativity and also offers an experiential account of this writer's own struggles and triumphs with epilepsy, and how it has affected her artwork, personality, and human condition.
Bonnie Wheeler: Art Therapy and Cancer: A survivor’s story
The treatment of cancer can be a very scary and emotionally draining process. There are chemical treatments used to attack the cancer. These chemical treatments come with many side effects. There is a wealth of information given to cancer patients by their doctors and nurses. There are booklets on everything from health concerns to how to deal with hair loss. The best advice comes from the nurses. Patients are told by the nurses to keep their spirits and state of mind high. This comes from the new research covering the connection of body, mind, and spirit. There is research to support the use of art therapy with cancer patients. The benefits of artwork and journaling include opening the person up to see what state of mind they are in and to release feelings, including fear.
This thesis is a combination of a research component and a journal of a cancer survivor who believes there is more to cancer treatment than just treating the disease. Artwork and the personal story behind it are included.
Lorie White: Muslim Adolescent’s Cultural Identity
Seven adolescent students from the Rochester, NY Islamic Center Sunday school participated in a study on the effectiveness of art therapy groups as a tool for strengthening Muslim adolescents' cultural identity. The group met for 6-week 1 1/2 hour-long sessions. Adolescence is a period in one's life, which plays a pivotal role in identity formation. Adolescence coupled with acculturation can greatly increase the stressors, which impact this stage. Each week, the adolescents utilized various tools of artistic self-expression to convey their thoughts, feelings and ideas concerning their cultural identity. The students filled out the Multi-cultural ethnic identity measure (MEIM) on the first and last day of the group sessions, to determine if change did occur. The sessions overall had a positive impact on the group members which is exemplified in their artwork and discussions which ensued. Results of the MEIM indicated that there was not a significant change.
Amity L. Widener: The Use of Storyboarding in Art Therapy: An Introductory Manual of Techniques
This thesis provides a brief overview of art therapy theory and technique. Within the larger context of psychotherapy theory, concepts related to narrative therapy, including externalizing and re-authoring problems, are presented and discussed to demonstrate how storyboarding can be applied to art therapy. In addition, therapeutic storyboarding techniques are presented such as creating and designing a presenting problem character. The concepts discussed are used to create an introductory manual of therapeutic storyboarding techniques, which concludes this project.
Heather Marie Winkler: An Arena for Expression: Art therapy with Alzheimer’s patients and their caregivers
Throughout my experience with Alzheimer's patients at my intern, I have observed the emotional turmoil that these people endure due to the deterioration of their mind and body. They also deal with the loss of communication with loved ones and caregivers. People afflicted with this disease struggle with the results on a daily basis.
Many of their thoughts, feelings, and emotions are not able to be expressed thus leaving them in the world feeling helpless, alone, and confused. This disease is not only extremely challenging for the patient but for the caregivers as well. Alzheimer's disease affects all the people involved in the patient's life on some level. The caregiver especially needs to find a way to release stress and come to terms with the overwhelming emotions connected to the care giving process of an Alzheimer's patient. In this investigation, I suggest how art therapy can be used as a tool for self-expression allowing the patients and caregivers to express emotions in a supportive, accepting environment.
In the case studies presented, I will focus on the positive effects of art therapy and how individuals with Alzheimer's disease can use their art as a bridge for communication and self-expression. Art therapy can help them live a more enriched quality of life by enhancing their physical and psychological well being at this difficult juncture in their lives.
Shannon Youst: Bridging Fantasy and Reality: Focusing on solutions using art therapy in a school setting
The aim of this research was to implement the principles of Solution-Focused therapy, art therapy, and play therapy to be best adapted to work with children ages five to eight in a school setting. Children attended individual and group art therapy. Projects were based on themes of fantasy and were appropriately adapted meet each child's special needs. Children in this study had a wide variety of difficulties, including Autism, depression, developmental and physical disabilities, emotional and behavioral problems, and trauma. Results indicated that by utilizing children's natural abilities such as art making, playing, and storytelling, children were able to effectively solve problems in their own lives.
Lisa Tristine Zdep: Connecting Day By Day
Connecting Day by Day is a creative educational journal that describes first hand encounters between an art therapist and poverty stricken women seeking support and safety at Thea's Women's Center. This journal reflects daily group and individual art therapy sessions, client interactions and the effects and impact of the therapeutic relationship on both the client and the art therapist. Included are reproductions of artwork created during daily group and individual art therapy sessions, as well as segments of conversations between the art therapist and the women. Content includes a large focus on drug and alcohol addiction, living transitions, faith, health, and family situations. Artistic Inquiry and Creative Synthesis provide the approaches to data collection and the methods of analysis used in the study. Artistic Inquiry (1) uses artistic methods of gathering, analyzing, and/or presenting data; (2) engages in and acknowledges a creative process, and (3) is motivated and determined by the aesthetic values of research (Hervey, 2000, p.xiii). Using creative synthesis, the researcher/art therapist created poetry and "artwork to explore, discover, synthesize, or express the meaning of the data" (p.50)